'Climate and its classification' is an important topic of Geography which is very important for both preliminary and main examination of UPSC, State PCS and other competitive examinations. Herewith, we will start with one type of climate in one write up. In this article, we will extensively discuss Mediterranean Climate type which is also known as Warm Temperate Western Margin.
Mediterranean (The Warm Temperate Western Margin) Climate
Climate (Temperature & Precipitation)
- A dry, warm summer with off-shore trades:
- The relatively high temperature in summers.
- Coastal regions have modified temperature due to the influence of the sea.
- No rain because Trade winds are off-shore.
- Dry air, intense heat and low relative humidity conditions prevail.
- The concentration of rainfall in winter
- Precipitation in winter is the most outstanding feature of the Mediterranean region.
- Rain receives due to the shift of Westerlies equatorward in winter.
- Prevailing on-shore Westerlies bring cyclonic rain in the northern hemisphere.
- The mean annual rainfall is 25 inches.
- Heavy showers and few days with bright sunny periods between them is another characteristic feature.
- The prominence of local winds around the Mediterranean Sea.
- They are confined to the Western portions of continental masses, between 30 and 45 degrees North and South of the equator.
- It is best developed in Central Chile.
- Other Mediterranean regions include California (around San Francisco), the southwestern tip of Africa (around Cape Town), southern Australia (in southern Victoria and around Adelaide) and south-west Australia.
Vegetation & Wildlife
- Evergreen forests are open woodlands with evergreen oaks. Cork oaks of Spain and Portugal are best known. Australia have eucalyptus forests. Californian trees include giant sequoia or redwood.
- Evergreen coniferous trees include pines, firs, cedars and cypresses.
- Short and evergreen shrubs and bushes. Common species are laurel, myrtle, lavender, arbutus etc.
- Wiry and bunchy grasses without deep penetrating roots, not suitable for animal farming.