# Logical Operators in C Programming

By Priyanshu Vaish|Updated : May 31st, 2023

The C programming language includes three logical operators that can be used to combine the results of two or more logical expressions, conditions, or boolean values. Two of the three logical operators in C are binary in nature, while the third is unary. These logical operators can be used to create complex logical expressions and conditionals in C programming to control the flow of execution based on certain conditions.

Logical Operators in C PDF [GATE Notes]

In C, logical operators are used to combine or modify the logical values of operands. This article will cover logical operators in C in detail. We will look at the use of logical operators and learn how different logical operators in C, such as AND, OR, and NOT work.

## Logical Operators in C

Logical operators in C join two or more expressions or conditions to perform logical operations on a given expression. It is applicable in a variety of relational and conditional expressions. This operator uses Boolean values to check the condition logically and returns 1 if the conditions are true.

The logical operators in C return 0 if the conditions are false. There are three types of logical operators in C programming that are as follows:

• Logical AND(&&) operator
• Logical OR(||) operator
• Logical NOT(!) operator

## Logical AND Operator in C

A binary operator is the logical AND. It combines two inputs into one. The result is true only if both inputs are true and false if one of the inputs is false. The truth table of the logical operators in C is as follows:

 Input 1 Input2 Output 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

## Logical OR (||) Operator

A binary operator is the logical OR. It combines two inputs into one. The result is false only if both inputs are false and true if one of the inputs is true. The truth table of the logical operators in C is as follows:

 Input 1 Input2 Output 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

## Logical NOT (!) Operator

The logical NOT operator is the only unary operator among the logical operators. This will take one input and return its complement as the output. If the input is true, the output is false, and if the input is false, the output is true.

 Input Output 0 1 1 0

## Short-Circuiting Property in Logical Operators in C

The logical AND and logical OR operators perform short-circuiting operations, but the logical NOT operator not be used for this purpose. Short-circuiting is skipping sections of code to improve a program's efficiency.

If you want to understand the short-circuit property in logical operators in C and improve the efficiency of your program, keep these two points in mind.

When the first input is false, the logical AND operator does not evaluate the second.

The logical OR operator does not evaluate the second input when the first input is true.

## Logical Operators in C Examples

The program given below is an example of the logical operators in C that are as follows:

#include<stdio.h>
int main()

{

int a = 2, b = 2, c = 4, result;

result = (a == b) && (c < b);
printf("(a == b) && (c < b) is %d \n", result);

result = (a == b) && (c > b);
printf("(a == b) && (c > b) is %d \n", result);

result = (a == b) || (c < b);
printf("(a == b) || (c < b) is %d \n", result);

result = (a != b) || (c < b);
printf("(a != b) || (c < b) is %d \n", result);

result = !(a == b);
printf("!(a == b) is %d \n", result);

result = !(a != b);
printf("!(a != b) is %d \n", result);

return 0;

}

Output:

(a == b) && (c < b) is 0
(a == b) && (c > b) is 1
(a == b) || (c < b) is 1
(a != b) || (c < b) is 0
!(a == b) is 0
!(a != b) is 1

Explanation:

(a == b) && (c < b) returns 0 because operand (c < b) is 0(false).

(a == b) && (c > b) = 1 because both operands (a == b) and (c > b) are 1(true).

(a == b) || (c < b) equals 1 because (a == b) equals 1. (true).

(a!= b) || (c < b) returns 0 because both operands (a!= b) and (c < b) is 0(false).

Because (a == b) is 1, it evaluates to 0. (true). As a result,!(a == b) equals 0. (false).

Because operand (a!= b) is 0(false). As a result,!(a!= b) equals 1(true).

## Problems on Logical Operators in C

Problem 1: Consider the following code:

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{

int x = 7, y = 3, z = 3;
int d;
d = z + y == x;
printf("%d", d);

}

What is the output of the code?

1. 0
2. 1
3. 6
4. 7

Problem 2: What will be the output of the following C code?

#include <stdio.h>
int main()

{

int x = 10, y = 5, z = 3;
y != !x;
z = !!x;
printf("%d \t %d", y, z);

}

1. 5 1
2. 0 3
3. 5 3
4. 1 1

Problem 3: Consider the code:

#include <stdio.h>
int main()

{

int a = 10;
if (a == a--)
printf("True 1\t");
a = 10;
if (a == --a)
printf("True 2\t");

}

What will be the output of the following C code?

1. True 1
2. True 2
3. True 1  True 2
4. Compiler Dependent

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## FAQs on Logical operators in C

• A logical operators in C is a symbol or word that connects two or more expressions so that the value of the compound expression produced is solely determined by the original expressions and the meaning of the operator.

• To make a decision, logical operators in C are primarily used in expression evaluation. These operators evaluate and manipulate specific bits within the integer. For example, if all relational statements combined with && are true, this operator returns true; otherwise, it returns false.

• Logical operators in C are very important in any programming language because they allow us to make decisions based on certain conditions. If we want to combine the results of two conditions, the logical AND and OR logical operators come in handy. Logical AND operator.

• If the first input value to the operator evaluates to true, the compiler will skip checking the second input and return true as the output. Because regardless of the second condition, the output of the logical OR operation will be true.

• The short circuit property in logical AND is that if the first input is false, the operator will not even consider checking the next input because the output will be false regardless of the other input.

• There are three types of logical operators in C programming that are as follows:

• Logical AND(&&) operator
• Logical OR(||) operator
• Logical NOT(!) operator

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