Non-Cooperation Movement – Middle-Class participation in Towns and Cities
- The Middle Class got the Non-Cooperation Movement off the ground in cities.
- Schools and colleges lost teachers and headmasters.
- The practice of law was discontinued.
- Numerous students fled the colleges and universities under government rule.
- Many merchants and dealers refused to support international trade.
- People shunned imported items. Many traders and businesspeople refused to deal with foreign items.
- Huge bonfires were used to burn off foreign clothing.
- As individuals began to wear solely Indian clothing and abandon foreign clothing, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms increased.
- Shops selling alcohol were picketed.
Struggles of the Middle Class in the Non-Cooperation Movement
- There were primarily no Indian institutions available to replace the British ones.
- Teachers and students re-entered government colleges and universities.
- Attorneys re-joined the government courts.
- Long-term boycotts of mill fabric were no longer feasible for most people. Khadi clothing was exceedingly expensive compared to mass-produced mill cloth, making it unaffordable for the poor.
Non-Cooperation Movement – Workers in Plantations
Workers had a different interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi's cry for Swaraj in Assam, where it meant maintaining ties to one's home village and having the freedom to enter and exit the restricted space in which one works.
Swaraj in Plantations – Assam
- Rarely did the plantation laborers receive permission to leave.
- Before leaving the tea garden, plantation employees had to get authorization.
- According to the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, this regulation was put into place.
- All of the employees disobeyed the law and authorities by fleeing the plantations without permission as soon as they learned about the Non-Cooperation Movement and made their way to their hamlet.
- The plantation workers thought that under Gandhi Raj, they would all receive lands in their villages.
Struggles of Plantation Workers in the Non-Cooperation Movement
- These plantation laborers, however, were unable to get where they were going.
- Due to a strike that the steamers and railways called, they were left stranded.
- Police officers apprehended plantation laborers, who were then violently abused.
- The vision of these movements was not, however, defined by Congress.
- The idea of Swaraj was viewed differently by plantation workers.
Non-Cooperation Movement – Peasants in Countryside
The Non-Cooperation movement embraced the struggles of the peasants.
- Peasants used to be subject to hefty rent demands and other cesses from landlords and Talukdars.
- Peasants were made to labor for free on the landlord's farm. Begar refers to this coerced contribution that received no compensation.
- Peasants regularly faced eviction since they lacked the security of tenure and no claim to the rented land.
- The Awadh peasant movement was led by Baba Ramchandra.
- The peasant movement wanted the social boycott of tyrannical landowners, the elimination of begging, and a reduction in taxation.
- In October 1920, Baba Ramchandra, Jawaharlal Nehru, and others founded the Oudh Kisan Sabha.
- As the movement gained traction, grain hoards were raided, bazaars were pillaged, and the homes of merchants and talukdars were targeted.
- All actions and objectives were justified by mentioning Mahatma Gandhi.
Non-Cooperation Movement – Tribals
The concept of swaraj and Mahatma Gandhi's messages were interpreted in yet another way by tribal peasants.
- In the Andhra Pradesh Gudem Hills at the beginning of the 1920s, a militant guerrilla movement grew.
- The fact that they couldn't go into the trees to gather food, build fires, or let their animals graze infuriated the hill people.
- The British colonial administration forbade access to extensive woodland regions.
- Tribes believed their customary rights were being denied, which had an impact on their way of life.
- When the tribals were made to pay Begar, the hill people rose up in revolt against the British government.
- The rebellion was led by Alluri Sitaram Raju.
- According to Alluri Sitaram Raju, who encouraged people to stop drinking and don Khadi, he was motivated by the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- The Tribals engaged in guerrilla warfare to obtain Swaraj.
Satyagrahis, in Gandhiji's opinion, needed to be properly prepared for large-scale conflicts. Gandhiji became aware that the Non-Cooperation Movement was frequently devolving into violence. As a result, in February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi made the decision to end the Non-Cooperation Movement.
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
The Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 included members of the Middle Class in Towns and Cities, Plantation Workers, Peasants in the Countryside, and Tribes. Gandhiji thought that if the Indian people did not cooperate, British rule would end and Swaraj would take over. Gandhiji thought that Indian cooperation was essential to the establishment and continuation of British authority in India.