Know all bout CAR T-cell Therapy

By Sudheer Kumar K|Updated : August 8th, 2021

The Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai performed India's first CAR-T cell treatment (a sort of gene therapy). The CAR-T cells were developed and manufactured at IIT Bombay's Bioscience and Bioengineering (BSBE) department with funding from DBT/National BIRAC's Biopharma Mission. 

Significance of CAR-T cell Therapy

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR T-cell therapy) is used to treat specific types of blood malignancies, and it is also being researched for other cancers. The Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy has proven to be a game-changer in cancer treatment, particularly for patients with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. 

However, this technology was not available in India until recently. CAR-T cell therapy costs Rs. 3-4 crores for each patient.

What are T-Cells?

T cell, also known as T lymphocyte, is a type of leukocyte (white blood cell) that plays an important role in the immune system. T cells are one of two primary types of lymphocytes, the other being B cells, that determine the specificity of the immune response to antigens (foreign substances) in the body.

T-cells are classified into two types: helper T-cells and killer T-cells. Helper T-cells stimulate B-cells to produce antibodies and aid in the development of killer cells. Killer T-cells kill cells that have already been infected by an invading foreign invader. T-cells also use cytokines as messenger molecules to send chemical instructions to the rest of the immune system, causing it to respond more aggressively.

About T-Cell Therapy

T-cell therapy is a sort of treatment in which a patient's T cells (a type of immune system cell) are genetically modified in the laboratory to attack cancer cells. In other words, T-cell transfer therapy is an immunotherapy that improves the ability of our own immune cells to fight cancer. There are two types of T-cell Transfer Therapy:

  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) therapy
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy

CAR T-Cell Therapy Process

  • First, T cells are extracted from the blood of a patient to produce chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). This is done so that T-cells can recognise specific protein on tumour cells.
  • Later, CAR T cells are grown in large numbers in the lab and are then infused into the patient.
  • CAR T-cells binds to the cancer cells and kill them.

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XyzAug 8, 2021

Sir please Hindi mein kria

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