Kinematic Pair - Classification, Types, Examples

By Mohit Uniyal|Updated : May 4th, 2022

Kinematic Pair: Machines are essential in today's world because they can do things more effectively. Machines can perform our tasks in a faster, quicker, and more effective way. Our phones, laptops, refrigerators, microwaves, etc. are all examples of machines that facilitate us in performing various tasks with ease. A machine is a combination of rigid or resistant bodies, formed and connected in such a manner so that they move with definite relative motions. The two links or parts of a machine when in contact with each other having relative motion between them are said to form a pair.

However, if the relative motion between the corresponding links is completely or successfully constrained in a definite direction, then the pair is termed the Kinematic pair. A kinematic pair or simply a pair is a joint of two links having relative motion between them. Let’s Understand kinematic pairs and their classification systematically.

Table of Content

What is Kinematic Pair?

In classical mechanics, a kinematic pair is a connection between two physical entities that impose constraints on their relative movement (kinematics). Let’s understand systematically kinematic pairs and their detailed classification.

“A kinematic pair is a connection between two adjacent links that permits a definite relative motion between them.”

Classification of Kinematic Pairs

Kinematic pairs can be classified on the premise of their nature of the contact, constraints, and the nature of relative motion between the elements in contact. Here is the complete classification of kinematic pairs with the appropriate examples.

Classification

Types of Kinematic Pair

Examples





On the basis of the nature of relative motion

Sliding pair

Piston and cylinder

Rolling pair

Ball and roller bearings

Turning pair

Crank and connecting rod

Screw pair

Cap and bottle

Spherical pair

Joystick

Cylindrical pair

Circular bar in a circular hole


On the basis of the nature of contact

Lower pair

Piston and cylinder

Higher pair

Cam and follower

Wrapping pair

Belt and pulley

On the basis of the nature of mechanical constraints

Closed pair

Ball and socket joint

Open pair

Cam and follower

On the Basis of the Nature of Relative Motion

In this scenario, our main focus will be the type of relative motion taking place between the elements while classifying kinematic pairs based on the nature of relative motion. There are six types of kinematic pairs on the premise of the nature of relative motion as follows-

Sliding Pair: This consists of two components connected in such a way that one is constrained to have a sliding motion relative to another component, Then the pair is known as sliding pair.

Example: Rectangular bar in a rectangular hole, Square bar in a square hole, Piston and cylinder of an IC engine, and Tail- Stock and lathe bed, etc.

Rolling Pair: This consists of two elements connected in such a way that one is constrained to roll in another element which is fixed, Then the pair is known as the rolling pair.

Example: Ball and roller bearings, Wheel rolling on a flat surface and marble rolling on a flat surface, etc.

Turning Pair: This consists of two components connected in such a way that one is constrained to turn or revolve about a fixed axis of another element, Then the pair is known as the turning pair.

Example: Shaft with a collar at both ends revolving in a circular hole, The crankshaft of an IC engine turning in a bearing, Cycle wheels revolving about their axles, etc.

Screw Pair: This consists of two elements connected in such a way that one component turns about the other component through threads. In this scenario, The motion is a combination of turning and sliding.

Example: The lead screw of a lathe and nut, Nut and bolt combination, and Screw with nut of screw jack.

Spherical Pair: Spherical Pair consists of two elements joined in such a way that one element in the form of a sphere turns about the other fixed element.

Example: Ball and socket joint, Pen stand and Minor attachment of vehicles, etc.

Cylindrical Pair: A pair in which one link has independent revolute and sliding motion relative to the other is themed as a cylindrical pair.

Example: Circular bar in a circular hole and motion of door latch etc.

On the Basis of the Nature of Contact

In this scenario, our main focus will be the type of contact taking place between the elements. Whether it is point contact or line contact while classifying kinematic pairs based on the nature of the contact. There are three types of kinematic pairs on the premise of nature of contact as follows-

Lower Pair: When the two elements are having surface contact with each other. At the time, when relative motion takes place and the surface of one element slides over the surface of another element, the pair is termed a lower pair.

Example: Nut turning in a screw, Shaft rotating in a bearing, Universal joint, and all pairs of slider-crank mechanisms.

Higher Pair: When the two elements of a pair are having line contact or point contact with each other. At the time, when relative motion takes place and the motion between the two elements is partly turning, sliding then the pair is known as the higher pair.

Example: Toothed gearing, Belt and rope drives, Ball and roller bearings, cam and follower, etc.

Wrapping Pair: A pair in which one body completely wraps over the other body is termed a wrapping pair.

Example: Rope and pulley, Belt and pulley and chain and sprocket, etc.

On the Basis of the Nature of Mechanical Constraints

In this scenario, our main focus will be the nature of mechanical constraints, whether it is because of geometry itself or due to an external means (e.g. gravity, spring) while classifying kinematic pairs based on the nature of mechanical constraints. There are two types of kinematic pairs on the premise of the nature of mechanical constraints as follows-

Closed Pair: A pair in which elements of pairs are held together mechanically, due to their geometry, is termed a closed pair. “All lower pairs are closed pairs”

Example: Screw and nut, ball and socket joint, carriage and guideways, etc. 

Open Pair: A pair in which elements of pairs are not held mechanically, but due to the consequence of an externally applied force.

Example: Cam and follower mechanism, door closing mechanism, automotive clutch operating mechanism, etc.

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FAQs on Kinematic Pair

  • Rolling pair is formed in a ball bearing. When the link of a pair has a rolling motion relative to each other, they form a rolling pair.

  • In classical mechanics, a kinematic pair is a connection between two elements that impose constraints on their relative movement (kinematics).

  • The part which moves relative to the other part is termed a kinematic link. When corresponding two links come together, they form a pair and when the motion between them is completely or successfully constrained, the pair is known as kinematic pair.

  • The kinematic pair in which one element of the pair is spherical and turns inside the other stationary element is called spherical pair. The spherical pair has three degrees of freedom.

  • The degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the least number of independent variables needed to describe the position or motion of the system.

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ESE & GATE ME

Mechanical Engg.GATEGATE MEHPCLBARC SOESEIES MEBARC ExamISRO ExamOther Exams
tags :ESE & GATE MEGeneralGATE ME OverviewGATE ME Exam AnalysisGATE ME Question PapersGATE ME Answer KeyGATE ME Cutoff

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