International Relations UPSC
How to read International Relations so that one may comprehend the topic and perform well in the UPSC exam is the most complicated question for all aspirants. The term alone contains the answer. Relationships between India and the principal nations of the world are known as international relations (including neighbouring countries). Students must try to grasp India's relationships, roles, and obligations toward the rest of the globe.
The study strategy for international relations UPSC notes will be covered in this post, along with a summary of the syllabus, a reading list, tips for taking notes, and a list of everything significant for international relations and events.
International Relations UPSC Syllabus
The International Relations section is covered in GS Paper 1 and Paper 2 as well of the UPSC exam. The detailed International relations syllabus for UPSC is provided in the table below:
International Relations UPSC Syllabus
International Treaties and Conventions
India and Neighbourhood
India and Central Asia
International/ Inter-governmental Organization
India and Europe
India and Africa
India and Geopolitics
India and Oceania
International Relations: Iran Nuclear Deal
As part of the "Atoms for Peace" program, the United States helped Iran in the 1970s with its nuclear program. Even as a non-nuclear weapon state, the Shah of Iran signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1968 and ratified it in 1970. Everything changed after the Iranian revolution destabilised the nation's nuclear program and caused a significant exodus of gifted experts. As per International Relations, there was no longer any chance for American support because the new regime overtly opposed them.
With aid from Pakistan (which signed a bilateral agreement with Iran in 1992), China (which did the same in 1990), Russia (which did the same in 1992 and 1995), and the A.Q. Khan network, Iran resumed its nuclear program in the late 1980s. Despite Iran's claims that its nuclear program was for peaceful reasons, Western nations and its Middle Eastern allies believed otherwise.
International Relations: World Cities Culture Forum
In 2012, the World Cities Culture Forum was founded in London with only 8 member cities. There are 43 member cities for WCCF as of April 2021. It is an important concept with which candidates must be familiarized to prepare International relations UPSC notes well. It enables the decision-makers of member cities to exchange information and research and examines the crucial role that culture will play in their continued growth.
BOP Consulting oversees all of the WCCF's operations. BOP tracks the value and effects of culture and creativity so that appropriate decisions and policies may be made. Through a calendar of activities that includes workshops, regional summits, and themed symposia, forum participants collaborate. These occasions provide content for the yearly World Cities Culture Summit.
By 2030, two-thirds of the world's population will reside in cities due to rapid urbanization, which will impact the International relations of countries. Governments are dealing with difficulties that are getting more complicated at an unprecedented rate of change. Many of our time's most important policy concerns, from combating climate change to advancing social equality, are being led at the local level instead of the federal one.
International Relations: India - Bangladesh
Now we will discuss the International Relations between India and Bangladesh. On March 26 and 27, 2021, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi travelled to Bangladesh to celebrate Bangladesh's Golden Jubilee of Independence, the 100th birthday of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Bangladesh. In 2021, India and Bangladesh celebrated 50 years of diplomatic ties.
Events commemorating "Mujib Borsho," the centennial of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's birth and the founding president of Bangladesh, were held by India. Earlier in September 2020, in honour of Gandhiji's 150th birth anniversary celebrations, Bangladesh released a stamp in his honour.
International Relations UPSC Notes: India - Pakistan
In February 2021, International Relations of India and Pakistan jointly announced that they would uphold the 2003 cease-fire along the Line of Control for the first time in years (LoC). The nations have agreed to abide by all agreements, understandings, and cease-fires along the Line of Control (LoC) and all other areas beginning at midnight on February 24–25, 2021. To create a durable and win-win peace along the borders, the two Directors General of Military Operations decided to address each other's key issues and concerns, frequently disturbing the peace and igniting violence.
India reaffirmed its "Neighborhood First Policy." It expressed a wish for normal relations with Pakistan in an atmosphere devoid of terror and bloodshed in the most recent bilateral brief between India and Pakistan (February 2020). The bilateral International relationssuffered a serious blow as a result. Pakistan then kicked out the Indian High Commissioner in Islamabad and suspended air and land communications and commercial and railroad services.
International Relations between India and Afghanistan
India and Afghanistan have long-standing and close bilateral International relations. The two countries participate in several regional alliances, including the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). According to the MEA, a five-year Treaty of Friendship was signed in January 1950 by Jawaharlal Nehru, India's prime minister, and Mohammad Najibullah, Afghanistan's ambassador to India at the time.
Given that India is currently the fifth-largest donor of development aid to Afghanistan with its full commitment, the developing International relationsbetween India and Afghanistan have become more significant since 2001. India is now Afghanistan's most prominent regional aid donor, contributing between $650 and $750 million in humanitarian and economic support.
India's assistance and International relationsextended to the restoration of air routes, the construction of power plants, the funding of the health and educational sectors, and the aid in the instruction of Afghan civil workers, diplomats, and police.
International Relations: India - Mauritius
India–Mauritius International relationsrefer to the links between the Republic of India and the Republic of Mauritius in terms of history, politics, economy, the military, social life, and culture. These two nations first established diplomatic ties in 1948. Through the successive occupations of the Dutch, French, and British, Mauritius maintained connections with India. After Mauritius gained independence on March 12, 1968, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, the country's first prime minister and regarded as the "Father of the Mauritian Nation," gave India a prominent place in the country's foreign policy.
Mahatma Gandhi briefly stopped in Mauritius from October 29 to November 15, 1901, while traveling from South Africa to India. This brief stopover left a lasting impression on the island nation. On Gandhiji's advice, Barrister Manillal Doctor traveled to Mauritius in 1907 and assisted the island's Indian community organize itself, laying the groundwork for their fight for political and social rights.
International Relations UPSC: India - Oman
International Relations between the Republic of India and the Sultanate of Oman have been characterized by commerce and interpersonal connections since antiquity. Several defence, cultural cooperation, and economic agreements strengthen ties between India and Oman. India and Oman share a rich cultural heritage.
International Relationsare also supported by the vast number of Indian expatriates who live in Oman and occasionally organize cultural events there. Higher education is popularly pursued in India by Omani students, and in recent years, an increasing number of medical tourists from Oman have entered the nation. Additionally, Oman has been attempting to market itself as a travel destination in India.
International Relations between India and Bhutan
India Bhutan International relationshave historically been strong because the two nations have a unique bond based on shared cultural values and objectives. India's foreign, military, and commercial policies continue to influence Bhutan. Bhutan has maintained its independence for most of its history by remaining cut off from global events because of its mountainous terrain.
When it signed a treaty with the British Empire in 1910, it began its first bilateral International relationsand gave the British Empire control over its defence and foreign policy. One of the first nations to recognise India's independence in 1947 was Bhutan. Following that, both nations developed close connections.
India's "Himalayan Frontier" security policy was based on its International relationswith Nepal and Bhutan, but after China annexed Tibet, the two nations became closer. Born on November 14, 1889, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visited Bhutan in 1958, reaffirming India's support for independence. He added that India would view any attack on Bhutan as a war crime.
International Relations: India - Japan
India and Japan are allies in pursuing world peace and equitable development. They are also interested in enhancing Asia's security, stability, and prosperity. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Japan and India made the decision to take their International Relationsto a qualitatively new level. India and Japan now share a similar global perspective on peace, security, and prosperity based on sustainable development.
The foundation of the two nations' International relations is their commitment to human rights, pluralism, open societies, the rule of law, and shared democratic principles. The global relationship between India and Japan reflects a comprehensive convergence of their long-term political, economic, and strategic interests, goals, objectives, and concerns.
International Relations: India - Australia
The International relations between India and Australia are positive since both nations are committed to democracy and pluralism. Both nations are currently members of the British Commonwealth and were once a part of the British Empire. The people of both countries are united by several shared characteristics, including their love of cricket and the English language. Sydney, India, opened a trade office in 1941. Robert Menzies was the first Australian Prime Minister to travel to India following Australia's independence in 1950.
He had previously backed India's republican entrance to the Commonwealth. The two nations created a "Strategic Partnership" in 2009, and ties have improved their International relations. A K Antony visited Australia for the first time as India's defence minister in 2013. A few months after being named PM, in November 2014, the current PM, Narendra Modi, paid a visit to Australia.
The value of the two countries' bilateral commerce as of 2016 is A$21.9 billion. International relationshave increased considerably since 2003, when the amount was A$ 4.3 billion. In 2011–12, India exported commodities worth A$ 2.49 billion to Australia and imported goods worth A$ 13.11 billion from that country.
International Relations: India - Maldives
In terms of race, language, culture, religion, and trade, India and the Maldives have had long International relations that are warm and intricate. India was one of the first countries to acknowledge and forge diplomatic connections with the Maldives when they achieved their independence in 1965. India established a CDA-level mission in 1972, and in 1980 it was appointed a resident High Commissioner.
One of only four diplomatic outposts in the world at the time, the Maldives established a full-fledged High Commission in New Delhi in November 2004. International Relations between themfortify the geopolitical, security, and economic links between the two geographically and economically dependent South Asian neighbors, the president of the Maldives paid a visit to India in August 2022. The visit occurred during a difficult period for the country and its shared neighbor, Sri Lanka, experiencing political unrest and an economic collapse.
How to Prepare International Relations Notes for UPSC?
The most dynamic and difficult subject for the UPSC is International Relations (IR). It is General Studies Paper 2 in the UPSC Mains syllabus. This topic cannot be avoided because every year, GS Paper 2 contains questions worth around 100 marks. Here are some of the best preparation tips for International relations UPSC notes:
- You must be familiar with the International Relations syllabus for the UPSC Mains before beginning the topic. You should read the syllabus line by line and word by word.
- Different approaches work for international relations, in contrast to other topics where it is advised to finish one reading of the syllabus before consulting the questions from the previous years. Before beginning your study for this subject, you must review the UPSC previous year question papers.
- You may learn about current events by reading the newspaper. An active subject for the UPSC is international relations. You'll need a newspaper to prepare India's foreign policy. One of the top newspapers for coverage of India's connections with foreign countries is The Hindu.
- Without understanding the background, such as the events that occurred after the independence era, the cold war and the non-alignment era, the Wars between India and Pakistan and China and Pakistan, the Fall of the USSR, the 9/11 incident, and everything that followed, you will not be able to comprehend why such things are happening now or the causes behind them.
- It is crucial to read a current events magazine once a month. We occasionally overlook certain newspaper themes or cannot grasp the message an article is attempting to convey. Due to the author's choice of tiresome language, it occurs with the majority of us. A good institute's current affairs magazine summarises all the news and articles and does it in easy English.
- As soon as you have a firm grasp of the subject, you should start composing daily responses. You can start by answering the questions from prior years. You can also gradually speed up the procedure. The quality and areas covered will improve with daily practice. You will receive extra points for more engaging replies.
- It's crucial to review the notes you've taken regularly. Additionally, you should update the remarks following global events.
Best Books for International Relations UPSC
The following are the list of best books to prepare for International Relations UPSC for the upcoming exam:
International Relations Books
Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy
Understanding International Relations
Chris Brown and Kirsten Ainley
Oxford Handbook of Indian Foreign Policy
David M. Malone
Vinay Kumar Malhotra
Theories of Comparative Politics: The Search for a Paradigm Reconsidered
Ronald H. Chilcote
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