Indian Polity Notes for UPSC

By K Balaji|Updated : September 15th, 2022

Polity Notes for UPSC should essentially be covered while preparing for the UPSC Exam. Indian Polity is essential to the UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains Exam. The Indian Polity and Constitution occupy an important place in the CSE Exam. The Indian Polity Notes should be read from cover to cover as it helps understand the correlation between the points well.

Through this article, we will focus on the UPSC Polity Notes in detail, covering the UPSC GS Paper 2 and emphasizing important topics such as the Salient Featured of the Constitution, Fundamental Rights and Duties, DPSPs, Centre-State Relations, etc., to name a few. For the candidate's convenience, we have also attached the Indian Polity UPSC Notes PDF at the end.

UPSC Polity Notes

In the UPSC Exam, the UPSC Polity Notes occupy a significant portion of the UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains. The Polity Syllabus for UPSC is vast and requires ample time to complete. Seeing the UPSC Exam Pattern, one cannot deny the importance of the Polity Notes. Indian Polity Notes are covered well in the UPSC Prelims Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus. In the UPSC Prelims Question Paper, one can see the number of questions from Polity and Constitution occupy a significant number. Moreover, the UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus covers the Polity Notes well in depth.

So, as an aspirant, it is imperative not to miss out on the important topics of UPSC Polity Notes for the upcoming IAS Exam.

Polity Notes for UPSC Exam 2023

The Polity Notes for UPSC essentially cover the following topics:

  • Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions, and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges about the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels, and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs disputes redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges, and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization, and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory, and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising from their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

>> Check Indian Polity Questions in UPSC Prelims

Indian Polity UPSC Notes

The Indian Polity UPSC Notes provided here are extensive and clear all the major doubts one has regarding the topics and sub-topics of Polity Notes.

The topics one needs to study to prepare the Polity Notes include:

Evolution of the Constitution

Salient Features of the Indian Constitution

Major Features and Amendments of the Constitution

  • (125th Amendment) Bill, 2019
  • Role of Convention under the Constitution
  • Comparison between Judicial Review and Parliamentary Supremacy
  • System of Government: Parliamentary & Presidential System
  • Salient features of the Constitution
  • Keshvananda and Bharti Case Judgement
  • The Philosophy of the Constitution
  • The Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, 2019
  • Sources of the Constitution
  • 42nd Amendment Act
  • 44th Amendment Act

System of Governance

  • Center-state Relations
    • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinion on Legislative Relations
    • Administrative Relations
    • Delegation of Union Functions to the States
    • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinion on Administrative Relations
    • Financial relations
    • National Integration Council
  • Inter-State Relation
    • Inter-state water dispute
    • Inter state councils
    • Inter-state trade and commerce
    • Zonal Councils
  • Special Provisions for some States
    • Provisions for Maharastra and Gujarat, Nagaland, Assam, and Manipur
    • Provisions for Jammu and Kashmir (Article 370) (now abrogated)
  • Types of Emergencies
    • National Emergency
    • Constitutional/State Emergency /President’s Rule
  • Financial Emergency

Union Executive Polity Notes for UPSC

  • President
    • Eligibility
    • Election, Manner of Election
    • Impeachment of the President
    • Powers of the President
  • Vice President
    • Qualification
    • Conditions of Office
    • Term of Office
    • Election, Removal and Vacancy
    • Functions of the Vice-President
  • The Prime Minister
  • Union Council of Minister

Union Legislature

  • Organization of Parliament
    • Qualifications and Disqualifications for being a Member of Parliament (Article 84)
    • Sessions of Parliament
    • Collective Privileges of the House
    • Houses of the Parliament
  • Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
    • Presiding Officers of the Parliament
    • Powers & Functions of the speaker
    • Deputy Speaker
    • The panel of Chairpersons of Lok Sabha
    • Chairman of Rajya Sabha
    • Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
    • The panel of Vice-Chairpersons of Rajya Sabha
    • Chairman and Deputy chairman of the Council of States
  • Legislative Procedure and Committees of Parliament

Judiciary Notes for Polity

  • The Supreme Court
    • Chief Justice of India

Appointment of Supreme Court Judges

  • Qualifications for Supreme Court Judges
  • Removal of a Supreme Court Judges
  • Process of Impeachment
  • Ad hoc and Retired Judges
  • Salaries and allowances of Supreme Court Judges
  • Chief Justices of India (Since 1951)
  • Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
  • Judicial Independence
  • Judiciary Executive Relations
  • The High Court Subordinate Courts & Lok Adalats
    • The High Courts
    • Jurisdiction of the High Courts
    • Subordinate Courts
    • Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008
    • Alternative dispute Resolution
    • Lok Adalat
    • All India Judicial Service
    • E-governance in Judiciary
    • Judicial Impact Assessment
    • Judges Standards and AccountabilityBill, 2010
    • National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

Union and its Territory

Fundamental Rights Polity Notes

Fundamental Duties UPSC Polity Notes

  • Article: 51A
    • Features
    • Relation between Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties
    • List Of Fundamental Duties
    • 86th Constitutional Amendment Act 2003: RTE
  • Recent Developments
    • Fundamental Duties – Awareness Campaigns are the Duty of the Center
    • National Anthem - Mandatory in Cinema Halls - Article 51(a)
    • Prevention of Insults to Nacional Honour Act, 1971
    • Triple Talaq Issue
    • Uniform Civil Code
    • MGNREGA: Right to Work
    • Making Aadhar mandatory

Directive Principles of the State Policy Polity Notes

Significant Provisions of the Constitution

Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Bodies

Citizenship Polity Notes

  • Constitutional provisions of citizenship
  • Citizenship Act, 1955
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2016
  • Concept of dual citizenship
  • Rights and Duties of Citizens
  • Pravasi Bhartiya Divas
  • Non-Resident Indians

Major Dynamics of Polity

  • Electoral System in India
  • Electoral Reforms Since 1988
  • Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950
  • Types of Political Parties
  • Party System in India
  • Political Parties in India
  • Pressure Groups

Governance and Major Schemes of the Government

  • Governing Institutions in India
  • Role of SHG, NGOs, Civil Society
  • Social Sector Bills
    • Child Labour (Prohibition and Amendment) Bill, 2016
    • Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO)
    • Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016
    • Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act
    • Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016
    • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 with more Benefit
    • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act
    • Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC WidensAmbit
    • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights)Bill 2016
    • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act
    • Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
    • Anti Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty
    • HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control)Bill- 2014 - Amendments
  • Welfare Schemes
    • Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
    • Swachch Bharat Abhiyan
    • Nai Manzil Scheme
    • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban
    • Agriculture and Rural Development
    • Nai Roshni Scheme
    • Skill Development Initiative Scheme
    • Smart Cities Mission
    • Atal Innovation Mission
    • National Health Mission
    • National Ayush Mission
    • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana
    • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
    • Digital Gudda Guddi Board
    • Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan)
    • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
    • Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU)
    • Ujjawala Scheme
    • Atal Pension Yojana
    • National Skill Development Mission
    • Mission Indradhanush
    • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin
    • Janani Suraksha Yojana
    • Disability
    • Social Security
    • Housing for all by 2022
    • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
    • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
    • SC/ST
    • Start-Up India Scheme
    • NFHS-4 survey
    • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
    • Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
    • Mid-Day Meal Scheme
    • Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
    • USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)
    • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram
    • GIAN (Global Initiative Academic Networks)
    • Stand up India Scheme
    • SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active –Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)
    • Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan
    • Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
    • Jan Aushadhi Scheme
    • Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
    • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
    • Panchayati Raj
    • Shyama Prasad Mukharjee Rurban Mission
    • Women and Child Development
    • Rural and Urban Development
    • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
    • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
    • National Student Start-up Policy
  • Miscellaneous schemes
    • INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research)
    • Bharat net Project (National Optical Fibre Network)
    • Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF)
    • Digital India
    • SAKAAR
    • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation)
    • Ganga Gram Yojana
    • Khelo India
    • Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project)
    • Digilocker

Separation Of Power

  • Power Sharing
  • Inter-State Council vs. National Development Council.
  • NITI Aayog: The new ‘think-tank’ to replace Planning Commission.
  • Foreign Policy of India

Statutory, Regulatory, and Various Quasi-Judicial Bodies

  • Role of NITI Aayog
  • Inland Waterways Authority of India
  • SEBI, CBI, Planning Commission, NDC, PMO
  • Inter-State River Water Dispute: Cauvery dispute
  • TRAI, IRDA
  • 7th Pay Commission Report and Repercussions
  • Medical Council of India
  • Forward Markets Commission
  • Biodiversity Authority of India
  • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
  • Press Council of India
  • State Information Commission
  • 14th Finance Commission: Analysis
  • AFSPA
  • ARC Report
  • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority

Recent Bills and Acts

  • Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, 2018
  • Draft Emigration Bill, 2019
  • Triple Talaq Ordinance
  • The Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act, 2019
  • The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016
  • The Indian Institute of Information Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2017 (autonomy of institutes)
  • Citizenship (Amendment) Bill
  • Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act, 2018
  • Lokpal & Lokayukta Amendment Act, 2016
  • Data (Privacy & Protection) Bill, 2017
  • Consumer Protection Bill, 2018
  • 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act

International Relations Polity Notes UPSC

  • India’s Foreign Policy
    • India-Myanmar Relations
    • India-China Relations
    • India-Pakistan Relations
    • India-Afghanistan Relations
    • India-Russia Relations
    • India – Saudi Arabia
    • India – UAE Relations
    • India-Nigeria Relations
    • India-EU Kingdom Relations
    • Asia-Pacific Region
    • India-France Relations
    • India-Bangladesh Relations
    • India-Sri Lanka Relations
    • India Iran Relations
    • India – Israel Relations
    • India-Maldives Relations
    • India and Bhutan
    • India-USA Relations
    • India-South Africa Relations
    • SAARC
    • India-Kenya Relations
    • India-Sudan Relations
    • India-ASEAN Cooperation
    • India – Nepal Relations
    • India-Germany Relations
    • India-South East Asia Relations
    • India-Vietnam
    • Indo-Japan Relations
    • India – South Korea Relations
    • India-United Kingdom Relations
    • NAM (Non-Alignment Movement): Relevance
    • Israel and Palestine Relations
    • Indo-Australia Relations
  • Indian Diaspora

Indian Polity UPSC Notes PDF

For the convenience of the candidate, we have compiled all the topic at one place in form of PDF. Students can download the Polity Notes PDF from here and revise on the go!

>> Download Indian Polity UPSC Notes PDF

Other Important UPSC Notes
13th Major Port of India21st Century Maritime Silk Road
Aadhaar Act 2016Chera Dynasty
Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation ActChild Marriage Restraint Act 1929
Chola DynastyDifference Between Axis and Central Powers
Difference Between Bilateral and Multilateral TradeInternal Security
Brahmaputra River SystemForest (Conservation) Act 1980

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FAQs on Indian Polity Notes for UPSC Exam

  • Polity is an important segment of the UPSC Exam and one should not miss on this subject. Over the years, a number of questions are asked from this part. One should study the Polity Notes for UPSC to cover all the essential topics of the subject. Click here to download the Indian Polity Notes for UPSC PDF.

  • To have the best Indian Polity UPSC Notes, one can refer to the Polity Books for UPSC, International Relations Books for UPSC and suffice them Current Affairs.

  • NCERT Books for UPSC form the base or the foundation of the subject and should essentially be covered. Other than this, one can refer to the stand UPSC Books also.

  • To prepare the Indian Polity for UPSC, candidates need to take the help of the NCERT books and UPSC Study Material. They need to have comprehensive notes for each topic, to avoid last-minute tension.

  • Laxmikant is considered the Bible for studying Polity and Constitution for the UPSC Exam. The book is more or less sufficient, but one needs to cover the NCERT Books as well.

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