In the previous m./,',, we have discussed IB ACIO GK up to the French revolution. In continuation of the series, we will discuss from Unification of Germany to the rise of Nazism in Germany.
IB ACIO GK World History Part 2
UNIFICATION OF GERMANY- 1848-71
At the end of the Napoleonic war, regions with German population was distributed across 38 states, of which Prussia was the strongest. In 1815, German confederation was made, which included all 38 states as well as Austria.
In 1848, the wave for democracy struck the German Confederation, and they set out to unite themselves in Frankfurt Assembly, to frame the constitution for the united Germany. However, due to the refusal of the emperor of Prussia, such unification couldn’t materialise.
In years to come, it was the blood and iron policy of Bismarck who belonged to Prussian aristocratic family. This policy was that of war, and pursuing it, Prussia attacked France, and thus dissolved old confederation and formed a North German Confederation in 1866 comprising 22 states.
The unification of Germany was eventually completed in 1870, as a result of the Franco-Prussian war, in which Louis Bonaparte was defeated. On account of this unification, William I became the king of Germany and his swearing-in ceremony took place at Versailles which is in France.
UNIFICATION OF ITALY-1848-70
Around early 19th century, Italy was divided into a number of states in which Sardinia was the most powerful. To aid unification of Italy, ‘Young Italy’ movement was started which was started by the famous revolutionaries like Mazzini and Garibaldi. After the 1848 revolution, Count Cavour, prime minister of Sardinia led the initiative to unite Italy.
In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia took the title as ‘King of Italy’. However, it was in 1870, that Rome, which was under Catholic Church, became part of Italy and subsequently its capital.
FIRST WORLD WAR: JULY 28, 1914-NOV 11 1918
Was fought between Central powers represented by Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria and the Allied powers which included- United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Serbia, USSR, Italy Romania and USA.
The main causes of war centred on- 1. Imperialism: Where the European countries compete with each other for having domination over territories in Asia, Africa and America; 2. Capitalism: Which led to the competition for profit, and ultimately gave birth to colonialism, where the colonies were seen as the supplier of raw material and an export market for the domestic Industries. 3. Militarism: Each country invested heavily in building military capabilities which gave birth to mutual suspicion. 4. Cobweb of alliance- Austria had an alliance with Germany, Serbia, on the other hand, had the backing of Russia. Russia had an alliance pact with France. In order to Attack France, Germany invaded Belgium which was the part of Schlieffen Plan and involved victory over France in 6 weeks. Honouring the agreement with Belgium, Britain entered war too, and to back Britain-Japan also joined the war.
The immediate cause of the war was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand who was the heir to the Austrian Throne. He and his wife Sophie were killed in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, the region annexed by Austrian. This plot was set by Serbia which was dissatisfied with the Bosnian Annexation.
The war ended with Central power defeat and the peace settlement was carried out in 1919-20. For such settlement the Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points were taken as the principle, however, in reality, they were hardly implemented. As part of the peace process, various treaties were also signed, like treaty of Versailles with Germany, treaty of St. Germaine with Austria, treaty of Neuilly with Hungary, Treaty of Sevres with Turkey.
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1917
This revolution took place in two stages. The first stage began in March 1917 with the overthrow of Czarist regime of Nicholas II. At this time, the power went to Mensheviks who are considered to be democratic and liberal. However, they were soon replaced by, the radical wing- Bolsheviks, led by Lenin.
The year from 1917-20, witnessed the civil war in Russian society and led to arrest, exile and killing of pro czarist, capitalist and so on. In 1923, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established where the state had the ownership over all means of production.
In 1911, under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen, ousted the Manchu Dynasty. He formed Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist party and tried to govern China amidst the trouble caused by Warlords.
It was in 1921, that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) came into being, and had a sour relation with the KMT. In response to the atrocities of the KMT, and to widen the communist base, Mao Zedong embarked upon 6000 miles Long March (1934-35) to form a new power base in northern China.
Of this face-off between KMT and CCP, in 1949 Mao Zedong’s CCP, emerged victoriously. Chiang Kai Shek, who was leading KMT, has to then flee to Formosa (Taiwan)
THE GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION- 1929- 34
Economics depression is a scenario which involves in general fall in the economic activities in the economy, such that unemployment rises, production falls and inflationary trends set up which eats up the purchasing power of the currency.
This depression started with the agricultural recession, and subsequently, went on to engulf financial panic and collapse. To tackle it, in the USA, Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced the policy known as New Deal, which involved massive public investment to revive the economy.
FASCISM IN ITALY
Caught in the economic and political weakness, Italy was disappointed by the outcome of the peace settlement. In 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the Italian Fascist Party and won 35 seats. Around the same time there was the real danger of Left-wing revolution, in such scenario, fascists organised the March on Rome, resulting into the invitation to Mussolini, by King Victor Emmanuel to form a government.
Eventually, Mussolini regime started to cover the entire way of life of the Italian people, and his regime turned into the authoritarian one. In order to increase his sphere of influence, he joined with Hitler, and this alliance ultimately was functional for the start of the World War II.
In the war, after the initial victory, Italy lost his African possession, and Mussolini rule got shrunk till Northern Italy which was eventually too was occupied by the allied powers, leading to the death of Mussolini.
NAZISM IN GERMANY
After the defeat in WW II, Kaiser Power was questioned, and he appointed Prince Max as Chancellor. However, greater public pressure led to the formation of the government of left-wing social democrat party under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert.
In 1920s, the right-wing parties like Kapp Putsch, started circling the government to unseat it. Coupled with the heavy War repatriation and great economic depression, the situation in Germany deteriorated significantly. Adolf Hitler, Leader of the National Socialists (NAZIS), was invited by President Hindenburg, to become chancellor, which subsequently led to the rise of the authoritarian regime in Germany and death of the Weimer Republic.
To boost your preparation for IB ACIO Grade II Exam, gradeup has launched full-length tests pack, which consists of 10 online mock tests based on latest pattern and available in Hindi & English. The 1st test of the test pack is free and can be attempted through the link below.
All the best!