How to calculate or figure out the hybridization state,i.e. sp3 or sp2, etc? Explain in detail with an example.

By Ritesh|Updated : November 9th, 2022

The following formula can be used to forecast when a molecule or ion will hybridize: Number of Hybrid orbitals (H)= 1/2( No. of valence electrons in the valence shell of central atom the atom+ No. of monovalent atoms surrounding - Charge on cation + Charge on anion).

If the answer is:

  • 2 = sp
  • 3 = sp2
  • 4 = sp3
  • 5 = sp3d
  • 6 = sp3d2
  • 7 = sp3d3

Example of How to Calculate the Hybridization State

NO3-: H=1/2[5 + 0 -0+1] =3; Hybridisation = sp2

CH4: H = 1/2[4 + 4 – 0 +0] =4 ; Hybridisation : sp3

BeF2: H=1/2[2 + 2 -0 + 0] = 2 ; Hybridisation : sp

SF6: H= 1/2[6+ 6 - 0 + 0] = 6 ; Hybridisation: sp3d2

BF3: H= 1/2[3 + 3 -0 + 0] = 3 ; Hybridisation : sp2

NH4+: H= 1/2[ 5+ 4 – 1 +0] = 4 ; Hybridisation =sp3

PCl5: H=1/2[5+5 – 0 + 0] = 5 ; Hybridisation: sp3d

CO32-: H=1/2[4+ 0 -0 +2] = 3 ; Hybridisation = sp2

It is impossible to anticipate the hybridization state of any complex ion using the aforementioned method.

Summary:

How to calculate or figure out the hybridization state,i.e. sp3 or sp2, etc? Explain in detail with an example.

The hybridization state can be found using the formula. Number of Hybrid orbitals (H)= 1/2( No. of valence electrons in the valence shell of central atom the atom+ No. of monovalent atoms surrounding - Charge on cation + Charge on anion). The examples are CH4, CO32-, BeF2, SF6 etc.

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