How many Types of Montane Forests are There?

By Ritesh|Updated : October 4th, 2022

There are three types of montane forests. These are wet temperate forests, temperate forests, and Indian alpine forests. To understand this better, candidates should go through the information mentioned below.

  • Wet Temperate Forests (1000 - 2000 m): These forests can be found in moist temperate forests and higher mountain regions of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Eastern Himalayas (1000-2000 meters). The average annual temperature ranges between 11 and 14 degrees Celsius, with average annual rainfall between 150 and 300 centimeters.
  • Temperate forests (1500–3000 m): Temperate forests occupy the southern Himalayan slopes and contain pine, deodar, fir, spruce, and cedar. Annual precipitation ranges from 150 to 250 cm.
  • Indian Alpine Forest (above 3600 m): Alpine forests are usually made up of birch, pine, juniper, and fir. At higher elevations, lichens and mosses are found in the local vegetation.

Types of Montane Forests

On the sides of mountains, there exist montane habitats. Because temperatures drop as elevation rises and the ecosystem stratifies; as a result, the alpine climate in these areas has a significant impact on the environment.

  • This stratification plays a critical role in determining the plant community, biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics of montane habitats.
  • Because of the mild temperatures and abundant rainfall, dense montane forests are frequent at intermediate heights.
  • Higher elevations have harsher climates with lower temperatures and stronger winds, which prevent trees from growing and cause the plant community to change into alpine tundra, montane grasslands, and shrublands.
  • The endemic species density is higher in highland environments because of their special climatic circumstances.
  • The environmental services are provided by montane ecosystems, such as carbon storage and water supply.


How Many Types of Montane Forests are There?

Three montane forests are present in India: wet temperate forests, temperate forests, and Indian Alpine forests. Montane forests can be found at a height between 1000 to 2000 Meters in the mountains.


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