Articles and Amendments in the Constitution
Congress and the states are not permitted to enact ex post facto laws under the United States Constitution.
- This prohibition was found to apply exclusively to criminal statutes in 1798 and not generally prevent retroactive enactment.
- The idea that people can only be punished in conformity with norms of conduct that they may have determined before behaving is implicit in the prohibition.
- The phrase also safeguards against the historical practice of drafting legislation to punish specific people because of their political opinions, in conjunction with the ban on bills of attainder.
- The adoption of post-American Civil War loyalty-test oaths, intended to prevent Confederate sympathizers from practicing certain professions, was denounced by the United States Supreme Court in 1867 in the cases Cummings v. Missouri and Ex parte Garland as both bills of attainder and ex post facto laws.
How many articles and amendments are in the Constitution?
The Indian Constitution consists of 448 Articles, 12 Schedules, and 22 Parts as of October 2021. The constitution has been altered 105 times so far. All the amendments have been made after so much of discussion in the Parliament of India.