Hindustan Socialist Republican Association [HSRA]- Objectives, Members Of HSRA

By K Balaji|Updated : November 6th, 2022

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), priorly renowned to be as Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) and Hindustan Republican Army. It was established and led by Ram Prasad Bismil Ashfaqulla Khan, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, Sachindranath Sanyal, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee. Its constitution in writing and public manifesto, which was called The Revolutionary, was produced to be used as proof in the Kakori conspiracy trial in 1924. The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association came into existence after the submergence of the Non-violent movement.

The Kakori conspiracy was one of the major activities of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The article facilitates the complete knowledge of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association such as the activities, criticisms, and other details of the Indian revolutionary organization. The aspirants preparing for the IAS exam must be completely conversant with the details of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association [HSRA] as it is an essential topic of the UPSC syllabus.

Table of Content

Why was the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association formed?

The Non cooperation movement in 1919 resulted in a large-scale mobilization of the Indian populace against British rule. Although the non-cooperation movement was intended to be a nonviolent opposition movement, it quickly turned violent.

  • Following the Chauri Chaura tragedy, Mahatma Gandhi suspended the movement to stop the spread of violence.
  • The suspension of the Nonviolent movement disillusioned some nationalists who believed that the suspension was unjustified and premature.
  • The gap in the political landscape caused by the suspension resulted in the emergence of revolutionary movements among the most radical of those who wanted to overthrow British rule.
  • The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association [HSRA] was one of the leading factions that came into existence following the suspension of the Non-violence movement.

Activities of HSRA

There were numerous initial attempts to disrupt the colonial policies and obtain money for the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, including the robbery and destruction of the homes of village officials in Dwarikapur as well as Bichpuri in the years 1922-23.

  • The Kakori conspiracy was the most notable of the initial HRA initiatives. The Kakori incident occurred on August 9th, 1925, when HRA members robbed government funds from a train about 10 miles (16 kilometers) away from Lucknow and killed a person during the robbery.
  • The most prominent HRA [Hindustan Republican Association] members were detained and prosecuted for their part in the incident and others before it.
  • The verdict was that four senior leaders of the HRA - Ashfaqullah Khan, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, and Rajendra Lahiri were executed in 1926, and another 16 were imprisoned for lengthy periods.
  • The outcome of the trial saw the HSRA participants perform patriotic songs and display various other acts of defiance causing serious damage to the management of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
  • They delivered devastating damage to the organization's actions. Many people associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association who did not go through the trial were themselves under surveillance or arrested for a variety of reasons.
  • Azad wasn't the only Hindustan Republican Association, HRA's principal leader who avoided being detained, whereas Banwari Lal became an approver.

Criticism Of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

The methods of the association was different from Gandhi's nonviolent resistance. Gandhi heavily condemned the revolutionary movement and its methods. In response to Lord Irwin's train attack, Gandhi published a sharp critique of the HSRA named "The Cult of the Bomb" (Young India January 2nd, 1929).

In it, Gandhi declared that the bomb-throwing was nothing more than "froth rising to the surface of an unagitated liquid." He denounced Hindustan Socialist Republican Association [HSRA] in its actions and described them as being "cowards" and "dastardly."

  • According to Gandhi, the HSRA's violent fight was not without dangers. The violence triggered more suffering and reprisals.
  • In addition, it turned towards the inside because "it was a natural transition" from "violence committed to the government of another country" "to violence directed at ourselves."
  • The HSRA was able to respond to the criticism by releasing its statement "The Philosophies of Bombs" In it, they justified their violent tactics as being in line with Gandhi's nonviolent ways.

HSRA Members

The main members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association are Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, Sachindranath Sanyal, Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh. These members led the establishment of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The party’s manifesto was encoded was Sanyal.

Objectives of Hindustan Republican Association

The main objective of the members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was to establish an independent state. They wanted to build up the “Federated Republic of the United States of India”. They wanted to spread the vanity of the Gandhian nonviolent principles and establish the need for Direct Action. The members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association killed officials and looted the political officials for gaining funds.

Final Chapter - The Fall of HSRA

In the year 1930, all of the leaders of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association were killed or living in prison. Kailash Pati was arrested in October 1929 and became an appointee (witness to the prosecutor). On February 27th, 1930, Chandrasekhar Azad shot himself in the head in an encounter with the police in the famous case at Alfred Park.

  • Bhagat Singh Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru were executed on March 23rd, 1930. After Azad's death, it was impossible to find a central figure to bring the revolutionaries together, and regional divisions grew.
  • The group split into several regional factions, and they conducted attacks and bombings on British government officials across India in the absence of any coordination central.
  • In December 1930, Hindustan Social Republic Association [HSRA] launched a final attempt to revive the group at a gathering in Meerut. The attempt was unsuccessful and resulted in the arrests of Yashpal and Daryao Singh, both in 1931.
  • The arrests effectively put an end to the HSRA as a united organization, although the various regional factions continued fighting for independence until 1935.

HSRA For UPSC Exam

The aspirants preparing for the IAS exam must be wholly cognizant of all the essential topics to attain good grades in the upcoming exam. The complete details of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, the criticism, and the activities form an integral part of the UPSC syllabus.

HSRA UPSC PDF

The candidates can practice the UPSC previous year papers to get in touch with the complete details of the types of questions asked in the exam. Complete cognizance will enable the candidates to bring forth a roadmap for effective preparation. It will also assist the candidates in preparing well for the exam.

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FAQs on Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

  • The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a revolutionary political party established by Ram Prasad Bismil and his colleagues to fight British dominance in India and gain independence for the country by an unarmed rebellion, if necessary. The HSRA led its establishment after the submergence of the Non-violence movements.

  • Hindustan Republican Association HRA was later reorganized into The Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA). It was founded on the 28th of January 1928 in Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi by Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ashfaqulla Khan, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee

  • Chandrasekhar was the leader of the remaining revolutionaries, and the 9-10th of September 1928, at Feroz Shah Kotla Maidan of Delhi and he, together with Bhagat Singh Sukhdev, Batukeshwar Dutt, and Rajguru created the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association or the Garam Dal.

  • Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) was formed around 1928 in Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi by Chandrasekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar, and others. The main members of the HSRA were Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashafaqulla Khan, Sachindra Nath Bakshi, Sachindranath Sanyal, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee.

  • The main members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army are Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Sachindranath Sanyal, Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee, Chandra Shekhar Azad, and Bhagat Singh. They moved ahead in establishing the HSRA after the submergence of non-violent movements. The major movements include the Kakori conspiracy.

  • The main objectives of the HRA were to establish an independent state. The main members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association wanted to prove the vanity of the Gandhian principles. They wanted to invoke the masses to take Direct action. They killed and looted the officials to raise funds.

  • The actions of the HSRA were vehemently criticized by Gandhi. In accordance with his statement, these acts involved major risks, violence, and suffering. The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association replied to the statements by presenting the “Philosophies of Bombs” and they tried to prove how it aligns with Gandhi’s non-violent principles.

  • The HSRA full form is the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. The HSRA was founded by Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Sachindranath Bakshi, Sachindranath Sanyal, and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee. The Hindustan Republican Association was formed after the submergence of non-violent movements.

  • The main activities of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association include the Kakori conspiracy. The main members of the Hindustan Republican Association were prosecuted and detained. The four leaders were executed and the other 16 members were imprisoned. They performed national songs during the execution.

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