Salient features of India's Pre-independence Occupational Structure
The salient features of India’s pre-independence occupational structure are as follows-
- The predominance of Agriculture- India has always been a land devoted to agricultural practices. About 75% of the Indian workforce was engaged in agriculture (directly and indirectly). During the colonial period, there was massive poverty, and people were illiterate, because of which they engaged themselves in agricultural practices like farming and earning their livelihood.
- Lack of employment opportunities in the Industries- Though the manufacturing sector was another vital segment then, yet only a few skilled individuals could get a job because of the lack of employment opportunities in the industries. Around 10% of people used to work in the industrial and manufacturing sectors.
- Unequal Distribution among Sectors- There was a massive imbalance in the occupational structure in terms of distribution of the workforce among the agricultural (primary sector), manufacturing (secondary sector), and service sectors (tertiary sector)
- Regional Imbalance- There was a poor condition of occupational structure because of the regional variations. Bengal, Bombay, and Madras Presidency experienced the rise of the manufacturing industry and a simultaneous fall in the workforce associated to agriculture. In contrast, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Orissa highly depended on agriculture.