Important points to Note for UGC NET:
- The state with the most universities - Rajasthan with 76 universities.
- The state with the most deemed universities- Tamil Nadu with 28 universities.
- Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat have the most state universities, 28 each.
- Rajasthan has the most private universities, 46 in number.
- Uttar Pradesh has 6 central universities.
1. UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION (UGC)
- UGC came into existence on 28 December 1953 and governs universities in India.
- In 1956, UGC became a statutory organization established by an act of Parliament.
- As per the UGC Act (section 12), the main functions of UGC are coordination, determination, and maintenance of standards in universities.
- It acts as are a commendatory body.
- It does not have the powers to establish or derecognize any university.
- UGC comprises of the chairman, vice chairman, and 10 other re-members appointed by the central government.
- Secretary is the Executive Head.
- It functions from New Delhi as well as its seven regional offices located in Bangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Pune and Delhi.
- The first chairman of UGC was Dr. C.D Deshmukh.
- UGC implements numerous schemes aiming at improving the quality of higher education like:
- UPE: Universities with Potential for Excellence
- CPE: colleges with Potential for Excellence
- CPEPEA: Centre with potential for excellence and a particular Area
- SAP: Special Assistance Programme
- BSR: Basic scientific research
2. UGC Regional Offices
UGC Regional offices have implemented the schemes provided below:
- Development of Colleges affiliated to State Universities.
- Award of Teacher Fellowship to College Teachers to pursue M.Phil/Ph.D. for better development.
- Minor Research Projects for College teachers.
- Seminar/Symposia/Conference etc. for colleges.
- Construction of Women's Hostel (Special scheme).
- Provide financial assistance to teachers who are Visually Handicapped (Blind).
(b). The details of the regional offices
- Northern Regional College Bureau (NRCB)
Total number of Colleges: 922
States Covered: Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh
- Western Regional Office (WRO)
Date of Establishment: 11.11.1994
Total number of Colleges: 996
States Covered: Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, Dadar & Nagar Haveli, Daman, and Diu
- Eastern Regional Office (ERO)
Date of Establishment: 03.09.1996
Total number of Colleges: 1009
States Covered: West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, and Sikkim
- Central Regional Office (CRO)
Date of Establishment: 01.12.1994
Total number of Colleges: 791
States Covered: Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
- Southern Eastern Regional Office (SERO) ,
Date of Establishment: 20.09.1994
Total number of Colleges: 668
States Covered: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, and Andaman & Nicobar
- North-Eastern Regional Office (NERO)
Date of Establishment: 01.04.1995
Total number of Colleges: 253
States Covered: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, and Nagaland
- South-Western Regional Office (SWRO)
Date of Establishment: 25.04.1999
Total number of Colleges: 714
States Covered: Lakshadweep, Kerala, and Karnataka
3. CATEGORIZATION OF UNIVERSITIES
- There are two routes for establishing universities:
(i) through legislation
(ii) the deemed route.
- University/ University-level Institutions are mainly categorized in the following categories:
- Central Universities
- State Universities
- Deemed-to-be Universities and
- The institution of National Importance
Total No. of Universities in India as on 12.11.2018
Deemed to be Universities
(a). Central University
- A central university is established or incorporated by a Central Act (Act of parliament) and is under the purview of the Department of Higher education in the Union HRD Ministry.
- There are 48 central universities under the purviews of MHRD.
- The President of India is the Visitor of all central universities. He nominates few members in significant committees of the universities for effective and smooth functioning.
(b). State University
- A state university is established or incorporated by a Provincial Act or by a State Act.
- According to this list, there are 392 State Universities.
(c). Private University
- A Private University is a university which is established through a State or a Central Act by a sponsoring body (Sponsoring body is a Society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860).
- Other law for the time being in force in a State or a Public Trust or a Company which is registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (Sec. 25)
- There are 317 Private Universities listed under UGC.
- These universities can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges.
(d). Deemed-to-be University
- A Deemed University refers to a high-performing institution, as declared by the Central Government under the UGC Act, 1956 (Section 3).
- Deemed Universities enjoy academic status and privileges of a university.
- These universities award degrees to the students for courses which are offered at the time of conferment of the status of them and other courses allied to the approved courses.
- These universities can also award degrees for conventional/ general degree programmes -B.A/ B.Com/ B.Sc or M.A. M.Sc.
- There are 125 Deemed to be University according to the UGC list.
(e). The institution of National Importance
- An Institution is established by Act of Parliament and declared an Institution of National Importance.
- There are 91 Institutes under this list including IIMs.
4. Major Focused Indian Government Initiatives in Higher Education
(a). SKILL INDIA INITIATIVE- Kaushal Bharat, Kushal Bharat’.
- This scheme has been launched by Mr. Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India.
- The target under this initiative has been set to train400 million citizens by 2022 that would make them industry-oriented.
- The initiatives launched include various programmes like:
- PMKVY: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
- NPSDE: National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015
- Skill Loan scheme
1. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY): It is the flagship program and it includes incentivizing skill training by providing financial rewards on completion of training to the participants.
2. (NPSDE) National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015
- This is based on the vision to skill the Indian youth rapidly with high standards to make them ready for modern industries.
- This policy also promotes entrepreneurship skills among youth for creating wealth and gainful employment for the citizens.
3. Skill Loan Scheme
- It is designed to disburse loans of Rs 5,000 (US$ 75.3) to Rs 150,000 (US$ 2,260) to 3.4 million Indians planning to develop their skills in the next five years.
All the best for your exams,
Team BYJU'S Exam Prep