- Country S is undemocratic as the Ministry of Finance must have the authority to make decisions about the country's economy. The central bank can advise the finance ministry on economic policy. Still, the finance minister is a part of the government, and the government is elected by the people and can be considered accountable to the people.
- When signing treaties, the State Department can examine the negative and positive geopolitical implications with other nations and act accordingly, but getting permission from the countries to accept a treaty is undemocratic and against the authority of the citizens by whom the government was elected to power. Therefore, country R is undemocratic.
- The task of the army chief is to safeguard the borders from external aggression. The government may consult and receive input from the commander of the military when approving laws relating to the military. The ultimate powers rest with the government in a democracy, and the army chief does not have any right to prevent the lawmakers from passing military-related laws in parliament. Therefore, country P is undemocratic.
- Country B is democratic as it highlights that the constitution has powers given to the judiciary. Importantly, it also shows that the judiciary is independent and is an important indicator of a country's democracy.
- The Supreme Court of India's decision binds all other courts in India. Neither the executive nor the legislature can control the Indian judiciary.
- The government or ruling party cannot control the judges of the Indian courts.
Based on the information given, country Q is democratic, whereas the countries P, R, and S are undemocratic.