Haryana Geography Important Points:
- Haryana is located in the North-Western part of India and it is a landlocked state.
- The location of Haryana is between 27 39’ N to 30 35’ N latitude and between 74 28’ E to 77 36’ E longitude.
- Haryana’s share of the total geographical area of the country is 1.4 % and it is 4.4 million hectares.
- The altitude varies between 200 m to 1200 m above sea level.
- As per the India State of Forest Report, FSI, 2013, the Forest Cover in the state is 1586 km2 which is 3.59% of the state's geographical area and the Tree Cover in the state is 1282 km2 which is 2.90% of the geographical area. Thus the Forest and Tree Cover of the Haryana state is 6.49% of its geographical area.
- Haryana is geographically divided into four features – Hills, Plains, Aravali Range and a Semi-Arid area.
- The plain areas are formed by the doabs of the important rivers and are fertile in nature. The major plains are Yamuna–Ghaggar plain (Delhi doab) consists of Sutlej–Ghaggar doab, Ghaggar–Hakra doab, and Hakra–Yamuna Doab.
- The north area is covered with Shivalik Hills which consists of deciduous forests.
- The southern region is covered by the Aravalli range which borders the Rajasthan state.
- The semi-desert dry sand plain called Bagar tract covers the southwest part of the state.
Haryana Hills and Ranges
- Shivalik Range – North Haryana
- Aravalli Range – passes through the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Delhi
- Morni Hills – Panchkula district – only Hill station in Haryana
- Dhosi Hills – Mahendragarh district – extinct volcano
- Tipra Hills – Himalayan Range
Haryana Rivers :
- Ghaggar – Hakra (Palaeochannel of Vedic Sarasvati river)
- Markanda River
- Kaushalya River
- Tangri River
- Chastang River (Palaeochannel of Vedic Drishadvati River)
- Sarsuti river
- Dangri river
Triveni Sangam, Allahabad
Rishi Ganga, Chambal, Betwa.,
Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi
Shivalik Hills, Himachal Pradesh
Ottu Barrage, Haryana
Kaushalya River, Markanda River
Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana
Shivalik Hills, near Haryana border
Tributary of Ghaggar
HP, Haryana, Punjab
Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage, rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district, passes through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.
The seasonal Markanda River, known as the Aruna in ancient times, originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala, and swells into a raging torrent during monsoon is notorious for its devastating power, carries its surplus water on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasuti and later the Ghaggar.
Haryana Other Rivers
Southern Haryana has several southeasts o north-west flowing seasonal rivulets originating from the Aravalli Range in and around the hills in Mewat region, including,
- Sahibi River(called Najafgarh drain in Delhi).
- Dohan river(tributary of Sahibi, originates at Mandoli village near Neem Ka Thana in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and then disappears in Mahendragarh district)
- Krishnavati river(former tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Dariba and disappears in Mahendragarh district much before reaching Sahibi river)
- Indori river(longest tributary of Sahibi River, originates in Sikar district of Rajasthan and flows to Rewari district of Haryana), these once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswati
Important Canals of Haryana:
- Western Yamuna canal
- Sutlej Yamuna link canal
Important Dams of Haryana:
- Kaushalya Dam – Panchkula district – Yamuna River
- Ottu barrage – Sirsa district - Ghaggar River
- Tajewala Barrage –Yamunanagar district - Yamuna River
- Hathnikund barrage – Yamuna River
- Anagpur Dam – Faridabad district – Hakra River
Important Lakes of Haryana:
- Badkal lake – Faridabad
- Surajkund - Faridabad
- Blue Bird Lake – Hisar
- Damdama Lake – Gurugram district
- Hathni Kund – Yamunanagar district
- Karna Lake – Karnal
- Tilyar Lake – Rohtak
- Brahma Sarovar – Kurukshetra
- Sannihit Sarovar – Kurukshetra
Important Waterfalls of Haryana:
- Tikkar Taal – Morni Hills
- Dhosi Hill falls – Mahendragarh district
The climate of Haryana:
Rainfall: average rainfall is between 45 cm to 50 cm – mostly summer rainfall. The average rainfall is around 40 cm thus making the region arid to semi-arid. The rainfall is unevenly distributed during the year except for two well-marked seasons.
One is the monsoon period lasting from the middle of June to the end of September on which autumn crop and spring sowing depend and the other is the winter rains which occur from December to February, benefiting the Rabi crop
Temperature: Extreme hot in summer, around 45-degree Celcius maximum,
Coldest months – December and January
Soil: Soil is formed almost entirely of alluvium. The state is situated towards the depressions of the rivers Ganges and Indus.
- Mountain Soil – in the hilly tracts which are rocky in structure
- Alluvial Soil – in the doab regions
- Red soil – in the southern parts
Agriculture of Haryana:
- Haryana holds second place in food grain production in the country.
- Major Crops: Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Corn
- Other crops: Cotton, Bajra, Sesame, Groundnut
- Both Kharif and Rabi seasons are important for cultivation in the state.
- About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tube wells and an extensive system of canals.
- Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s which made the country self-sufficient in food production.
- The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's biggest agricultural University - Chaudhry Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar, which has already made a significant contribution to in ushering the 'Green Revolution.
- The state occupies a fertile tract of river plain and is the "breadbasket of the nation," with irrigation canals and modern crop technology producing nearly a quarter of India's wheat, along with millet, rice, corn, sugarcane, cotton, and one-third of its milk and dairy foods.
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