What is the Global Hunger Index?
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a tool designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and national levels. The GHI is designed to raise awareness and understanding of the struggle against hunger, provide a means to compare the levels of hunger between countries and regions and call attention to the areas of the world in greatest need of additional resources to eliminate hunger.
- The Global Hunger Index (GHI) points to a dire hunger situation in a world coping with multiple crises, anything from the financial crisis to pandemics to the climate crisis and even protracted conflicts.
- It was decided to achieve a target of zero hunger by 2030. However, this target seems to be running in reverse or even might have gone stagnant for a while.
Global Hunger Index (GHI) is an important indicator of development and is essential for the UPSC Exam. The Global Hunger Index UPSC Topic comes under the category of Current Affairs, as well as Economy which is covered in both IAS Prelims and UPSC Mains.
Global Hunger Index 2021
The Global Hunger Index is published by Concern Worldwide and Wealthhungerhlife. It was first published in 2006 and is released annually in the month of October. The 2021 edition of the Global Hunger Index was the 16th edition of the index. The main aim of the Global Hunger Index is to track the hunger level at global and regional levels in different parts of the world.
The Global Hunger Index is calculated on the basis of four parameters, which are
- child wasting
- child stunting
- child mortality
The scoring process of countries in the Global Hunger Index determines the hunger level of countries on a scale of 0 to 100. This ranking process works in reverse in this index. The countries scoring the least numbers, like 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., are considered to be the best, having the least hunger in their country. Unlike the countries which fall under the category of "80s, '90s, and '100", they fall into the worst category in the index.
The data collected for preparing the Global Hunger Index annually is collected from the Food and Agriculture Organisation, the UN Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank.
Global Hunger Index Indicators
The ranking in the Global Hunger Index is given between 0 and 100. The country holding the position between 0 and 10 is considered to be the best in the Global Hunger Index, whereas countries ranked between 80 and 100 are considered to be first in terms of Global Hunger Index scoring.
The Global Hunger Index judges the hunger index of each country on four parameters, namely:
- Undernourishment - Share of the population with insufficient caloric intake.
- Child wasting - Percentage of children below five years of age who have low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition.
- Child stunting - Percentage of children below five years of age who have low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition.
- Child mortality - The mortality rate of children under the age of five.
Learnings from Global Hunger Index 2021
Based on current GHI projections, the world as a whole and 47 countries, in particular, will fail to achieve a low level of hunger by 2030.
- Evidence shows current setbacks against hunger and suggests trouble ahead.
- Although GHI scores show that global hunger has been on the decline since 2000, progress is slowing.
- In both Africa South of the Sahara and South Asia, hunger is considered serious. Africa South of the Sahara has the highest rates of undernourishment, child stunting, and child mortality of any region of the world.
- South Asia’s high hunger level is driven largely by child undernutrition, particularly as measured by child wasting.
- In the regions of Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, East and Southeast Asia, and West Asia and North Africa, hunger levels are low or moderate.
- Somalia suffers from an extremely alarming level of hunger.
- Hunger is at alarming levels in 5 countries- Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, and Yemen and is provisionally categorized as alarming in 4 additional countries Burundi, Comoros, South Sudan, and Syria.
Global Hunger Index 2021 India Rank
India has made superb progress since 2000. However, there are some children running out of nutrition. In 2000, India's Global Hunger Index score was recorded at 38.8 points. This score has been reduced to 27.5 points in 2021, which is significant progress. The parameters of undernourished children and the mortality rate are relatively low as compared to past times.
On the other hand, child stunting has been marked at 34.7% from 2016 to 2018. Still, it is higher in scoring. According to the Global Hunger Index 2021 report, India is the country after which 15 countries are in line with the war condition.
Government of India GHI 2021 Report
The Government of India has taken significant steps to prove its standing on the Global Hunger Index. According to the Government of India, the Ministry of Women and Child Development has stated that the methodology used by FAO is totally unscientific. The Government of India also highlights that the report published on the Global Hunger Index and FAO has ignored some important facts in it. These facts included that they made the assessment of the result based on a four-question opinion poll conducted telephonically.
They raised this question because, scientifically, the undernourishment should be measured with the parameters of measurement of weight and height. Whereas the methodology used by the Global Hunger Index report involved a telephonic poll of the population, Also, the report presented by the Global Hunger Index discarded the efforts made by the government of India to ensure food security for the population under schemes like the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana and Atma Nirbhar Bharat Scheme.
Why India has Dismissed the Global Hunger Index 2021 Ranking?
India has completely dismissed the Global Hunger Index 2021 Rankings and came out strongly against the publishers over the questions of methodology and data sources. Global Hunger Report 2021 has lowered the rank of India on the basis of FAO estimates.
India, terming the FAO methodology unscientific said that the scientific measurement of undernourishment would require measurement of weight and height, whereas the methodology involved here is based on a Gallup poll based on a pure telephonic estimate of the population. India also said that the report completely disregards the government’s massive effort to ensure food security of the entire population during the Covid period, verifiable data on which are available.
Global Hunger Index 2021 List PDF
The Global Hunger Report 2021 is essential for both Prelims and Mains. It is important to be well aware of the topic and the ranking of the countries to make a critical assessment of the report while writing answers.
You can download the complete Global Hunger Index Report in PDF format for easy and quick revision at the last moment.
The Global Hunger Index UPSC
Global Hunger Index UPSC topic is one of the most important and widely asked topics in UPSC Prelims. The topic is broadly covered under the GS Paper 2 of the UPSC Mains and Current Affairs section of the UPSC Exam. You can get the UPSC Study Material and UPSC Syllabus to study the Global Hunger Index and other important current affairs topics.
Global Hunger Index UPSC Questions
Question: GHI is calculated on the following indicators:
- Child wasting and stunting
- Child Mortality
Which of the statements above is true?
- a) 1 only
- b) 2 only
- c) 3 only
- d) All of the above
Answer: Option D.