A smart grid is an electricity network enabling a two-way flow of electricity from power stations to the customer and vice versa and data with digital technology enabling detection, react and pro-act to changes in usage and other such many issues. Smart grids have self-repairing capabilities and enable electricity customers to become active participants in the power supply and consumption.
A smart grid serves several purposes and therefore the movement from traditional electric grids to smart grids is supposed to be fueled by several factors, including the deregulation of the energy market, evolutions in metering, changes in the extent of electricity production, decentralization (distributed energy), the arrival of the involved ‘prosumer’, changing regulations, the increase of microgeneration and (isolated) microgrids, renewable energy is more popular among all other contemporary energy sources and new points where and purposes that electricity is required (e.g. electrical vehicle charging points).
Advantages of Smart Grid:
Our existing electricity grids have no energy storage capabilities, they're demand-driven i.e they continuously produce according to consumption and have a hierarchical data structure. In an electricity network voltage is decreased with time therefore the electricity is often employed by these different consumers: from the voltage level while transmission to distribution voltage levels to service voltage levels.
Typically, a clear difference in voltage is formed between transmission and distribution, where different wiring and cabling systems were used. The eventual aim of any electrical grid is to ensure that electricity is usually provided when and where needed, without interruption – and herein lie many challenges where a sensible grid can already offer solutions/answers.
Given the complexity and therefore the multiple challenges which will arise like the results of severe weather, damage by wildlife, human sabotage and other external factors and internal factors (issues with breakdown and crucial assets) managing a grid is extremely complex and a fanatical field for experts who also got to consider the alternatives regarding energy regulations and initiatives by governments.
Challenges in smart grids include various types of complex changes related to its regulation, difficulty in integrating various sources, systems and partnerships between various players in a deregulated market, the local situation whereby a specific number of huge companies often still dominate and changing attitudes among prosumers.
As we all know that with every technology we have some of its good and bad effects this Grid has also its own advantages and challenges but still, its is one of the most life-changing innovations given the fact that it is feasible to most of the countries of the world.