Difference between Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming

By Anjnee Bhatnagar|Updated : June 15th, 2022

Difference Between Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming: The programming paradigm is defined as the style of programming that defines the structure and basic elements of a programming language. Some programming languages strictly follow a single paradigm, while other languages may use concepts from more than one paradigm. We have provided detailed information regarding the difference between procedural and object-oriented programming based on various parameters.

In this article, we will learn about the two popular programming paradigms that are procedural paradigm and the object-oriented programming paradigm along with the difference between procedural and object-oriented programming. We will keep our focus on the difference between procedural and object-oriented programming but first will learn about each paradigm individually.

Table of Content

Difference Between Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming

Many of us have learned to program in C, which is procedural programming. To appreciate the power of C++, which is an object-oriented programming paradigm, let us see the difference between procedural and object-oriented programming. We have also discussed the difference between C and C++ here.

Key Difference Between Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming

Procedural Programming

Object-Oriented Programming

It does not support virtual functions.

It supports virtual functions.

It does not support operator overloading.

It supports operator overloading.

Supports the top-down approach.

Supports the bottom-up approach.

Do not support namespaces.

Supports namespaces.

Do not support polymorphism.

Supports polymorphism.

Do not support inheritance.

Supports inheritance.

Cannot have multiple declarations for global variables.

Cannot have multiple declarations for global variables.

Allows main to be called through other functions.

Do not allow main to be called through other functions.

What is Procedural Programming?

Procedural programming is derived from structural programming, which is alternately called modular programming. It follows a top-down approach in which the overall program is broken into modules. This allows the efficient loading of code and reusability in other programs. Modules are coded and tested separately, and once testing is done then, the modules are integrated into a single program structure.

Procedural programming is therefore based on modularization, which groups related code into a single module. Almost every modern programming language similar to C, Fortran supports the concept of modular programming. The program flow in structured programming follows a simple sequence and avoids the use of Go To statements.

What is an Object-Oriented Programming?

The object-oriented programming paradigm allows to development of maintainable programs. It restricts the code from freely flowing around the system. The basic difference between procedural and object-oriented programming is that the procedural programs are task-based as they focus on the actions the software must accomplish. However, object-oriented programming is task-based as well as data-based.

In object-oriented programming (OOP), the list and the associated operations are considered as an entity called an object. The striking difference between procedural and object-oriented programming is that the source codes accessing the list need not contain the procedures for performing tasks in the object. Therefore we conclude that the OOP is data-based as well as task-based.

Comments

write a comment

FAQs on Difference between Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming

  • Based on exceptional handling in programs, the difference between procedural and object-oriented programming is that procedural programming does not support exception handling, e.g., C language. At the same time, object-oriented languages support exception handling, e.g., C++, Java, etc.

  • In object-oriented programming, we follow a set of OOP concepts that follows and focuses on the data and tasks to be performed. Some of the OOP concepts are as follows:

    • Polymorphism.
    • Inheritance.
    • Data Abstraction.
    • Data Encapsulation.

    These concepts help programming in an efficient manner, following the user requirement and focusing on data security.

  • The difference between procedural and object-oriented programming based on approach is that procedural programming follows the top-down approach while object-oriented programming follows a bottom-up approach that provides building the program from the root level.

  • The advantages of using procedural programming are as follows:

    • Modularity enhances programmers' productivity.
    • It is easy to debug errors and perform testing on modules.
    • It consumes less time for writing programs.
    • It is easy to write and understand programs in the procedural programming paradigm.
  • The difference between procedural and object-oriented programming is that procedural programming does not allow operator overloading while object-oriented programming supports operator overloading adding power to the previously developed procedural programming paradigm.

Follow us for latest updates