Difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement - NCM vs CDM

By K Balaji|Updated : December 28th, 2022

There is a wide difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience, though both were milestone movements during the struggle for Indian independence. The non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements are two strong pillars of the independence struggle instructed by Indians in opposition to the Britishers who ruled the country for greater than 200 years. Both NCM and CDM were presided over by Mahatma Gandhi, regarded as the supreme personality, who fought for India’s sovereignty against British governance.

Difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience PDF

The fact that non cooperation and civil disobedience movements witnessed active participation from the people is a clear indication of their success at the national level. Moreover, the divide-and-rule policy by the British was causing intense unrest around those times, and the movements helped to unify the people. The article lists the key difference between non cooperation and civil disobedience movement.

Table of Content

Difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience

Before the non-cooperation movement's inception, the Jallianawala Bagh's massacre on 13th April 1919 and the Rowlatt Act, initiated in March 1919, served as a blunder on the role of the British Government.

  • Thus, the INC or the Indian National Congress removed its assistance for British amendments.
  • Subsequently, the movement was established by Gandhiji to acquire absolute autonomy from the British regime.

On the other hand, the Civil Disobedience movement was the face of active disobedience of all government policies and rules by the general public. Gandhiji started the campaign to break specific regulations and policies of the British government.

Difference Between NCM and CDM

The fundamental difference between non cooperation and civil disobedience movement is given below based on their commencing date, areas they covered, objectives, and the reason for the decline of the two movements.

Difference Between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience

Parameters

Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM)

Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM)

Beginning Date

The NCM was undertaken on 5th September 1920.

It persisted till February 1922, when the Chauri Chaura incident took place.

The CDM was founded on 12th March 1930.

The Salt Satyagraha movement commenced this movement undertaken by Gandhiji.

Locations Covered

NCM was bounded to fixed regions of the country.

The movement encountered active participation from individuals across India.

Primary objectives

The central motive of the Non-Cooperation Movement was to break the cooperation with British officials.

It was an active initiative and showed full apathy towards the British Government that ruled India.

Muslim community Participation

Muslim societies from all over India actively participated in this movement.

Few Muslims participated in this movement because of the British guideline of divide and rule.

Reason for Movement Decline

Indian citizens became very aggressive during the incident in Chauri Chaura, and ultimately the movement got pulled back.

After Gandhiji signed a treaty with Irwin, CDM got called off.

Non Cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement

At the start of the 20th century noticed two freedom struggle movements, namely, the Non-cooperation movement and the civil disobedience movement. The gap between the two movements was almost a decade, and they held an important position in the Gandhian history phase.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)

The Movement was inaugurated on 5 September 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi. The Movement sought to achieve Purna Swaraj or complete liberation, and it was abandoned after the Chauri Chaura incident in February 1922.

  • After the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919) and the Rowlatt Act (1919), the Indian National Congress removed its support for the British reforms.
  • Non Cooperation Movement in India had an ideology of non-violence and truth.

Mahatma Gandhi convinced the Indian citizens not to cooperate with the Government of British in the following functions:

  • Avoid going to British educational organizations.
  • Denying British Government jobs.
  • Boycotting goods coming from the British and using only Swadeshi products.
  • Stop Indian labour from supporting the economy of the British.

Civil Disobedience Movement in India

The Civil Disobedience Movement was where Indian citizens actively refused to follow the Government's orders, guidelines, and laws. Mahatma Gandhi initiated it in 1930.

  • This Movement in India aimed to immobilize the British Government by breaking distinctive regulations and directives.
  • Civil disobedience began with the Dandi march, where Gandhi broke the salt law, which was exclusively a governance monopoly.

Similarities between the Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement

The non cooperation and civil disobedience movements intended to push British rulers outside India. There was a conceptual difference between non cooperation and civil disobedience, but both movements strived to drive foreign monarchs away from the country.

  • Both initiatives created a strong influence on their intellects.
  • Civil disobedience and non cooperation movement united Indians and protested peacefully against the dictatorship carried off on them.
  • To make India an independent and free nation, these movements played a major role in pushing out the Britishers from Indian Territory.

Conclusion:

Key Difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience

The key difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience was based on the motive of the two movements. The central motive of the Non-Cooperation Movement was to break the cooperation with British officials, while Civil Disobedience was an active initiative that showed full disinterest towards the British Government.

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FAQs on Difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience

  • The difference between Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience is that the civil disobedience movement was marked when the Indian citizens refused to follow the Government's orders, guidelines, and laws. In contrast, the non cooperation movement sought to achieve Purna Swaraj or complete liberation.

  • Non-cooperation movement started in 1920 after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, which happened in April 1919 at Amritsar. Gandhi managed it. The Movement sought to achieve Purna Swaraj or complete liberation.

  • Gandhiji discontinued the Non-Cooperation Movement due to a cataclysmic event at Chauri Chaura, while the Civil Disobedience Movement was drawn out in 1931 when Gandhi marked the 'Gandhi-Irwin agreement.

  • The industrialists like Purshottam Das Thakur and GD Birla first approved the Civil Disobedience Movement. The growing closeness of the Hindu Mahasabha and the Congress party stopped Muslims from participating in Civil Disobedience Movement.

  • Among the 11 demands of Gandhiji during the Movement was to bring down the expenditure on civil services by 50% and bring changes in the arms act. Civil disobedience began with the unpopular Dandi march when Gandhi broke the salt law, which was exclusively a governance monopoly.

  • The significant impact of the non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements was to show the British Government that their policy of divide and rule was useless. The confidence in British law was cracked thanks to these movements, which is why it can be said that they were instrumental in liberating the country.

  • The limitations of the Movement were that the untouchables were ignored in the Movement. The second limitation was the Hindu-Muslim divide broadened due to the non-participation of Muslim political associations. Finally, disputes between Congress and Muslims arose due to the Muslim requirement for special seats.

  • On March 12, 1930, Indian independence leader Mohandas Gandhi started a rebellious march to the sea to demonstrate the British salt monopoly, his most courageous action of civil disobedience against British rule in India.

  • A common similarity between the two movements is the purpose of the country’s general public, which wanted to push away the British from India. Due to the movements, the individuals united in an attempt to act against the dictatorial regime of the British and articulate as one voice.

  • Gandhiji broke off the Movement in February 1922 in the imprint of the Chauri Chaura incident. In Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, fierce masses killed 22 police officers by setting a blaze to a police station during a conflict between the police and protesters of the non-cooperation movement.

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