Difference Between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL

By Priyanshu Vaish|Updated : September 9th, 2022

COMMIT and ROLLBACK are used in the transactional statement to perform or undo the SQL transaction. The main difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL is that the changes made to the database become permanent after performing the COMMIT operation, whereas the Rollback operation rollback the transaction to a previous point when some failure occurs.

This article explains more about the difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL. Before going to the difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL, we first individually discuss the COMMIT and ROLLBACK commands.

Difference Between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL

We have discussed the functionality of the COMMIT and ROLLBACK commands in SQL individually. Now we discuss the difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL. The below table shows the difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL.

COMMIT

ROLLBACK

The syntax used for the COMMIT command COMMIT;

The syntax used for the ROLLBACK command is ROLLBACK;

When the transaction is finished, the COMMIT statement is used.

The Rollback statement is used when a transaction is aborted, a power failure occurs, or incorrect execution of a system failure occurs.

The current transaction statement becomes permanent and visible to all users using the COMMIT command.

While the ROLLBACK command is visible to all users, the current transaction may contain incorrect or correct data.

A COMMIT statement is used to save changes to the current transaction permanently.

A ROLLBACK statement reverses all changes made to the current transaction.

The current transaction cannot be undone once it has been completely executed with the COMMIT command.

In the Rollback statement, once the current transaction has been completed, it can be returned to its previous state by using the ROLLBACK command.

What is COMMIT in SQL?

After going into the difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL, let’s discuss COMMIT in SQL. The SQL command COMMIT is used in transaction tables or database statements as permanent or databases to make the current transaction. It denotes the completion of a transaction. We want to make the changes permanent after successfully executing the transaction statement or a simple database query.

We must use the COMMIT command to save the changes, which are becoming permanent for all users. Furthermore, once a COMMIT command is executed in the database, we cannot restore it to the previous state that it was in before the first statement was executed.

The syntax used for the COMMIT command is as follows:

COMMIT;

What is ROLLBACK in SQL?

After discussing the difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL, let’s discuss ROLLBACK in SQL. If an error occurs during transaction execution, the SQL ROLLBACK command can be used to roll back the current transaction state. An error in a transaction can be a system failure, a power outage, incorrect transaction execution, a system crash, or anything else.

A ROLLBACK command generally rolls back the current transaction to its previous state or the first statement. A ROLLBACK command can only be used if the user has not yet COMMITted the current transaction or statement with the COMMIT command.

The syntax used for the ROLLBACK command is as follows:

ROLLBACK;

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FAQs on Difference Between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL

  • The difference between the COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL is that after performing the COMMIT operation, the changes made to the database become permanent. In contrast, the ROLLBACK operation rolls back the transaction to a previous point when a failure occurs.

  • The difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL regarding transaction conditions is that the current transaction cannot be undone once it has been fully executed with the COMMIT command. But the ROLLBACK command can return it to its previous state.

  • The difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL regarding occurrence is that the COMMIT statement is used when the transaction is finished. The ROLLBACK statement is issued when a transaction is aborted, a power failure occurs, or incorrect execution of a system failure occurs.

  • The difference between COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL regarding visible changes is that the current transaction statement becomes permanent, while the ROLLBACK command allows the user to undo all the changes.

  • A COMMIT statement in SQL terminates a transaction and makes all changes visible to other users within a relational database management system (RDBMS). The general format is to issue a BEGIN WORK statement, followed by one or more SQL statements, and finally a COMMIT statement.

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