Difference Between Abstraction and Encapsulation in Java

By Mohit Uniyal|Updated : May 4th, 2022

Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation in Java: Java programming language along with supporting polymorphism and inheritance also supports abstraction and encapsualtion. Both these features are an essential part of the Java programming language. The major difference between abstraction and encapsulation in Java is encapsulation is used to hide the working of the program whereas abstraction is used to hide the complexity of codes in the OOPs.

Here, we will first explore what is abstraction and encapsulation and thereafter we will discuss what is difference between abstraction and encapsulation in java in detail based on various factors.

Table of Content

What is Abstraction in Java?

Abstraction in Java programming language is a feature used in OOPs to hide the codes from the user. With the help of the abstraction feature, only the essential information is shown to the users. For example, in a TV remote, only the keys are shown to the users but not the codes on which it is operating as they are not at all useful to the end-user. 

Abstraction is among the four basic concepts of the OOP language. It is very helpful in reducing the complexity of the program. In short, it is said that abstraction is used to "show" essential details and "hide" irrelevant and unnecessary information. 

What is Encapsulation in Java?

Encapsulation is another very important feature of the OOP programming language. It is used to reduce the complexity of the software program and helps in creating it more user friendly. Encapsulation creates a user-friendly structure and wraps the code and data into a single entity. 

In encapsulation, data members are bound with variables. It is used and known for data hiding. As we have seen in brief about data abstraction and encapsulation, we will now see the difference between them in the next section. 

Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation in Java

Both abstraction and encapsulation are special features of OOP and are useful in various ways. There exist a few differences between the two features which are explained in the table provided below:

Abstraction vs Encapsulation

This feature is used to hide irrelevant and unnecessary codes from users.This feature is useful to hide codes into a single unit.
Design level issue rectification.Implementation level issue rectification.
Improves the external features.Improves internal features.
Abstract class and interfaces can be used to implement this feature.Access modifiers are used to implement this feature.
Abstraction is done with the help of encapsulated objects. No abstraction is required for encapsulation.
Presentation improves.Maintainability of the function increases
Unit testing is not affected.Unit testing becomes easier.


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  • The major difference between abstraction and encapsulation in Java is that encapsulation is used for the internal wrapping of the codes whereas abstraction is used for making the user-end less complex and free from unwanted codes.

  • Abstraction is an important feature used for simplifying the representation of the code to the user. This is helpful in breaking the program for various concepts. They are used after the encapsulation of the object.

  • Encapsulation in Java is an important feature to help improving the maintainability of the program. Unit testing and abstraction becomes easy with the help of encapsulation.

  • Yes, encapsulation is required for the abstraction in the OOP. The abstraction can only be done if the encapsulation of the program has been done already. But it is not required to have abstraction for encapsulation.

  • No, data hiding and data abstraction are two different things. Data hiding in OOP is known as the encapsulation whereas abstraction another feature of OOP. In abstraction, complexity of the code is reduced but not hidden.

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