Limit State Method

By Deepanshu Rastogi|Updated : December 2nd, 2021

Through Champion Study Plan for GATE Civil Engineering (CE) 2022, we are providing Limit State Method study notes and other important materials on every topic of each subject.

These topic-wise study notes are useful for the preparation of various upcoming exams like GATE CivilIESBARCISROSSC-JEState Engineering Services examinations and other important upcoming competitive exams.

The article contains fundamental notes on the "Limit State Method"  topic of the "Design of Concrete Structures" subject. 


Limit State Method

IS 456 Standards for Beams and Slabs and Columns

Effective span

A. Simply supported beams and slabs (leff)



Here, l0 = clear span

w = width of support

d = depth of beam or slab

B. For continuous beam

(i) If width of support < 1/12 of clear span


(ii) If width of support > 1/12 of clear span

(a) When one end fixed other end continuous or both end continuous.

leff = l0


(b) When one end continuous and other end simply supported




C. Cantilever

(i) image007 image008

(ii) image009 image010

D. Frames


leff = Centre to centre distance

Control of deflection

(i) This is one of the most important check for limit state of serviceability.

(a) The final deflection due to all loads including the effect of temperature, creep and shrinkage and measured from as cast level of the support of floors, roofs and other horizontal members should not normally exceed span/250

(b) The deflection including the effect of temperature, creeps and shrinkage occurring after erection of partition and application of finishes should not normally exceed span/350 or 20 mm which ever is less.

(ii) The vertical deflection limit may generally be satisfied if

(a) Basic span to effective depth ratio for span upto 10m is

Types of Beams: image014

For cantilever → 7

For simply supported → 20

For continuous → 26

(b) For span > 10 m effective depth image016

Where 'A' is span to effective depth ratio for span upto 10m.

(c) Depending upon the tension reinforcement the value 'A' can be modify by multiplying a factor called modification factor (MF1)

effective depth image017



(d) Depending upon area of compression reinforcement, value (A) can be further modified using a modification factor (MF2)

effective depth = image019

(e) For flanged beam : A reduction factor is used

(f) Deflection check for two way slab:


Slenderness limit

  1. For simply supported or continuous beams
    image021 where, l0 = Clear span
    b = Width of the section
    and, d = Effective depth
  2. For cantilever beam image022
    1. Minimum tension reinforcement image023
    2. Maximum tension reinforcement = 0.04 bD
    3. Maximum compression reinforcement = 0.04 bD
      where, D = overall depth of the section
    4. Where, D > 750 mm, side face reinforcement is provided and it is equal to 0.1% of gross cross-section area (b × D). It is provided equally on both face.
    5. Maximum spacing of side face reinforcement is 300 mm.
    6. Maximum size of reinforcement for slab/beam is 1/8 of total thickness of the member
    7. Nominal cover for different members
      Beams → 25 mm
      Slab → 20 to 30 mm
      Column → 40 mm
      Foundations → 50 mm
    8. Moment and shear coefficient for beams/slabs




If you are preparing for ESE/ GATE or other PSU Exams (Civil Engineering), then avail Online Classroom Program for ESE and GATE CE:

Online Classroom Program for ESE/GATE CE

You can avail of BYJU'S Exam Prep Test Series specially designed for all Civil Engineering Exams:

BYJU'S Exam Prep Test Series ESE/GATE CE


All the Best


write a comment

Follow us for latest updates