Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

By Shivank Goel|Updated : August 17th, 2022

The microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney are nephrons. They are composed of renal corpuscles and renal tubules. The renal corpuscles have a tuft of capillaries known as glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman's capsule.

Structure of Nephrons -

  • Basic filtering units of the kidney.
  • There are approximately a large number of nephrons i.e 1-1.5 million in each kidney.
  • A long renal tubule, Bowman's capsule, and glomerulus are the main components of a nephron.

Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

This simple and easy depiction of the nephron shows the important structures like Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, Descending Limb of Loop of Henle, Collecting duct, Distal convoluted tubule, and Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle.

Functioning of Nephrons -

  • Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery that branches into capillaries which are associated with the glomerulus.
  • At Bowman's capsule, water and solute are transferred to the nephron.
  • In the proximal tube, substances like glucose, amino acids, and salts are reabsorbed selectively and in the urine, unwanted molecules are added.
  • The filtrate moves down into the loop of Henle where there is the absorption of more water.
  • Filtrate moves up into the distal tubule and then to the collecting duct. From many nephrons, the collecting duct collects the urine.
  • The urine formed in each kidney enters the ureter which is a long tube. It then gets transported to the urinary bladder and finally into the urethra.

Therefore, the structure and functioning of nephrons are given above.

Summary:

Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

The structure and functioning of nephrons are given above.

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