Daily Current Affairs 27/07/2021
- Rudreswara Temple at Palampet, Warangal, Telangana inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List
Why in News
- Rudreswara Temple, (also known as the Ramappa Temple) at Palampet, Mulugu district, near Warangal in the state of Telangana has been inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage list.
- It is India’s 39th World Heritage Site.
- The decision was taken at the 44th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO.
- Rudreswara temple was proposed by the government as its only nomination for the UNESCO World Heritage site tag for the year 2019.
About the Rudreswara (Ramappa) Temple
- The Rudreswara temple was constructed in 1213 AD during the reign of the Kakatiya Empire by Recharla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya king Ganapati Deva.
- The presiding deity here is Ramalingeswara Swamy.
- The temple is also known as the Ramappa temple, after the sculptor who executed the work in the temple for 40 years.
- The temple stands on a 6 feet high star-shaped platform with walls, pillars and ceilings adorned with intricate carvings that attest to the unique skill of the Kakatiyan sculptors.
World Heritage Site in India:
- The first sites to be inscribed were Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Agra Fort, and Taj Mahal, of which all were inscribed in the 1983 session of the World Heritage Committee.
- Presently, there are 39 World Heritage Sites located in India. Out of these, 31 are cultural, 7 are natural, and 1 is mixed.
- India has the 6th largest number of sites in the world.
About World Heritage Site:
- A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
- The World Heritage Sites list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
- The programme began with the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage", which was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
- Cultural heritage sites
- Natural heritage sites
- Mixed heritage sites (contain elements of both natural and cultural significance)
Note: Recently, the England’s city Liverpool has been removed from UNESCO’s list of world heritage sites.
- Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Why in News
- Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have touched new heights in terms of performance in Exports, Investment and Employment in the last 3 years.
- Exports of Rs. 22,840 Crore in 2005-06 has increased to Rs. 7,59,524 Crore in 2020-21.
- Investment of Rs. 4,035.51 Crore in 2005-06 has increased to Rs. 6,17,499 Crore (cumulative basis) by 2020-21.
- Employment provided to 1,34,704 persons in 2005-06 has increased to 23,58,136 persons (cumulative basis) in 2020-21.
Note: In various Special Economic Zones (SEZs) across the country, 1096 Nos. of units have been registered during the last three years.
About Special Economic Zones (SEZs):
- A Special Economic Zone is an area in which the trade and business laws are different from the rest of the country.
- SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include increasing trade balance, employment, increased investment, job creation and effective administration.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in India:
- India was one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla, Gujarat in 1965.
- The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005 which received Presidential assent on the 23rd of June, 2005.
The main objectives of the SEZ Act are:
- To generate additional economic activity
- To create employment opportunities
- To promote exports of goods and services
- To develop infrastructure facilities
- To promote investment from domestic and foreign sources
- Laws for surveillance in India, and the concerns over privacy
Why in News
- In response to the finding by a global collaborative investigative project that Israeli spyware Pegasus was used to target at least 300 individuals in India, the government has claimed that all interception in India takes place lawfully.
- Pegasus is a spyware developed by the Israeli cyberarms firm NSO Group that can be covertly installed on mobile phones running most versions of iOS and Android.
- It is any malicious software designed to enter your computer device, gather your data, and forward it to a third-party without your consent.
The laws covering surveillance in India:
- Communication surveillance in India takes place primarily under two laws — the Telegraph Act, 1885 and the Information Technology Act, 2000.
- While the Telegraph Act deals with interception of calls, the IT Act was enacted to deal with surveillance of all electronic communication.
- A comprehensive data protection law to address the gaps in existing frameworks for surveillance is yet to enacted.
- Under the IT Act, all electronic transmission of data can be intercepted.
- So, for a Pegasus-like spyware to be used lawfully, the government would have to invoke both the IT Act and the Telegraph Act.
Associated Issues with the Surveillance:
- Affects Fundamental Rights
- Legal Loopholes
- Authoritarian Regime
- Threat to Freedom of Press
Recent Steps Taken in India:
- Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative
- National Cyber security Coordination Centre
- Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C)
- Computer Emergency Response Team - India (CERT-IN)
- Cyber Swachhta Kendra
- Budapest Convention on Cybercrime
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Source: Indian Express
- India, UK conduct naval exercise in Bay of Bengal
Why in News
- Indian Navy participated in a bilateral Passage Exercise (PASSEX) with the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy in the Bay of Bengal from 21 to 22 Jul, 2021.
- The bilateral Maritime Exercise was designed to hone the ability of the two navies to operate together in the maritime domain.
- The maiden exercise between Indian Navy and the Royal Navy’s latest Aircraft Carrier, HMS Queen Elizabeth included participation of Carrier Strike Group (CSG)-21 comprising Type 23 Frigates and an Astute-class submarine in addition to the other surface combatants.
- Indian Navy was represented by INShips Satpura, Ranvir, Jyoti, Kavaratti, Kulish and a submarine.
Note: India Navy and US Navy conducted a Passage Exercise from March 28-29, 2021 in the eastern Indian Ocean Region.
- India's first green hydrogen plant at Mathura refinery
Why in News
- India's largest oil firm Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) will build the nation's first 'green hydrogen' plant at its Mathura refinery.
- It aims to prepare for a future catering to the growing demand for both oil and cleaner forms of energy.
- This will be the nation's first green hydrogen unit.
- Hydrogen, in itself, is a clean fuel but manufacturing it is energy-intensive and has carbon byproducts.
- Green hydrogen production - the ultimate clean hydrogen resource - uses renewable energy to create hydrogen fuel.
- Forecasts state that Indian fuel demand climbing to 400-450 million tonnes by 2040 as against 250 million tonnes now.
- The demand growth makes it imperative to pursue refining expansion as well as expand in CNG, LNG, biodiesel and ethanol.
Source: Business Standard
- Kerala’s oldest learner Bhageerathi Amma dies at 107
- Kerala’s oldest learner, Bhageerathi Amma who passed a state literacy mission examination at the age of 105, passed away.
- Bhageerathi was awarded the Centre’s Nari Shakti Puraskar in 2020 for her contribution towards women empowerment.
Source: Indian Express
- July 23, National Broadcasting Day
Why in News
- In India, “National Broadcasting Day” is celebrated on 23rd July every year to make people aware of the importance of radio.
- On this day in the year 1927, the broadcast of radio started from Bombay station for the first time in the country under a private company called Indian Broadcasting Company of India (IBC).
History of National Broadcasting Day
- Broadcasting service was started in 1927 with two privately owned transmitters in Mumbai and Kolkata.
- After that, in 1930, the government took these transmitters under its control.
- Till 1935, it was known as Indian Broadcasting Service. But in the year 1936 its name was changed to All India Radio (AIR) and in 1956 it came to be known as ‘Aakashvani’.
- All India Radio is owned by Prasar Bharti, which is a statutory autonomous body set up by an Act of parliament.
Note: Prasar Bharati has 470 broadcasting centers across the country, covering approximately 92% of the country’s area and 99.19% of the total population.