Russian Constitution

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 23, 2022, 12:28

The fifth and current Constitution of the Russian Federation, which came into force in December 1993, was drawn up to replace the 1978 document. In 1993, President Boris Yeltsin issued a decree requesting that the Constituent Assembly drafted a new Constitution version.

The primary purpose for replacing it was because of the changes to the Russian Constitution system after it became an independent country following its break up from the Soviet Union in 1991. The Constitution defines Russia as a democratic republic with a political system based on the separation of powers between three branches: legislative, executive, and judiciary.

Russian Constitution Significance

The new Constitution proved helpful in improving Russia's political and economic situation after it became an independent country in 1991. It declared that Russia is a democratic republic with a strong separation of powers between legislative, executive, and judiciary branches.

Defining Russia as a democratic republic with an independent political system based on a separation of powers between three branches is helpful since these are the essential elements of its political system.

Consequently, the new Constitution guarantees various democratic rights and freedoms, including freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association, and protection by law against arbitrary interference in private life. It also guarantees various social and economic rights such as the right to work, healthcare, education, and housing.

The Constitution specifies that the international acts of the Russian Federation must not contradict those of the Russian Constitution unless they are ratified by federal law.

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Comparison of Indian and Russian Constitution

1) The Indian Constitution specifies that the country will be a sovereign, socialist, democratic republic. However, the Russian Constitution states that Russia is a sovereign, democratic republic with a strong separation of powers between three branches.

2) The Indian Constitution defines the country's purpose and governs its functions, duties, and responsibilities. The Constitutional Amendments in Russia only briefly mention the country's purpose but do not govern its roles, obligations, and responsibilities.

3) The Indian Constitution has proven useful to administrate the country as it contains various federal laws that govern different areas in which India is involved. Whereas in Russian Constitution, the Constitution has proved useful to administrate the country because of its reference to international acts that include those of other countries.

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4) The Indian Constitution is written in ordinary language, whereas the Russian Constitution is written in legal language.

5) The Indian Constitution ensures freedom and guaranteed rights and liberties such as freedom of expression, peaceful assembly, etc. At the same time, the Russian Constitution imposes restrictions on the same rights and freedoms.

6) A majority vote chooses the Prime Minister. In contrast, the Federation Council appoints the President of Russia after being elected by a majority vote from three candidates voted for by party members.

In conclusion, the comparison between the Indian and Russian constitutions is a good source for comparative law since it is the primary source for constitutional laws in both countries.

The Russian government and its people have to be aware of the issues that Russia will have to face shortly since these can significantly impact Russia's domestic policies and foreign policies that might affect other countries like India.

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FAQs on Russian Constitution

Q1. How many articles are there in the Russian Constitution?

The first section of the Russian Constitution comprises nine chapters and 137 articles encompassing the country's basic laws.

Q2. What are the main differences between the Indian and Russian Constitutions?

The Indian Constitution describes itself as a sovereign socialist democratic republic, while the Russian Constitution describes itself as a sovereign democratic republic. Furthermore, the Indian Constitution governs its functions, duties, and responsibilities. At the same time, the Russian Constitution only briefly mentions the country's purpose but does not govern its roles, obligations, and responsibilities.

Moreover, in the Indian Constitution, various federal laws govern different areas in which India is involved. In contrast, there is no reference to any act or article in Russian Constitution that regulates its functions and duties.

Q3. What is meant by separation of powers in the Russsian Constitution?

The Indian Constitution states that the Government of India shall be responsible for the conduct of its affairs, and its actions shall be binding upon all citizens. Furthermore, in Indian Constitution, various federal laws govern different areas in India's involvement. In contrast, there is no reference to any act or article that regulates its functions and duties in the Russian Constitution.

Moreover, in Russian Constitution, the President of Russia is appointed by the Federation Council after being elected by a majority vote from three candidates voted for by party members.

Q4. What are the different kinds of powers in the Russian Constitution?

The Russian Constitution defines the powers of legislature and executive. Furthermore, the Russian Constitution only briefly mentions the country's purpose but does not govern its functions, duties, and responsibilities.