India's Struggle for Independence

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 25, 2022, 10:21

After centuries of the British Raj in the Indian Subcontinent, the Indian Independence Act finally freed India, but a divided India- creating two distinct nations- India and Pakistan. After Independence, India finally gained the freedom to govern its people and led the reins of its country.

Nevertheless, one cannot overlook India's struggle for Independence.

Four Most Important Events In India's Struggle For Independence

Revolt of 1857

  • The very first uprising in the journey of India's struggle for Independence was the revolt of 1857.
  • The Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence began in Meerut by the Indian Cavalry under the British East India Company.
  • The uprising was regarding the new gunpowder cartridges used in Enfield rifles. Rumours were in the air that it had a cow or pig fat, disrupting the religiosity of both Hindus and Muslims.

Non-Cooperation Movement

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement, initiated by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, attempted to persuade the British to grant India self-governance or Poorna Swaraj.
  • The movement included surrendering title and honorary posts and posing a cold shoulder towards the legislative council and the British goods.

Civil Disobedience Movement

  • The Civil Disobedience Movement, or passive resistance, commanded Indians to refuse to obey the demands or orders of any government body or its occupying power.
  • Without practising any violence or active opposition, its purpose was to force the British to grant Dominion Status to India.

Quit India Movement

  • In India's struggle for Independence, the Quit India movement, also known as the August Movement, played a substantial role.
  • Its immediate cause was the slump of the Cripps Movement and widespread vexation in India due to World War II, which demanded an end to the Crown's rule in India.
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India's Struggle for Independence In 1947 - Key Reasons

Owing to the growth of modern approaches to rebellions and their political ideologies, one could see new demonstrations of Indian public opinion and a rise in political unitedness at both central and provincial levels.

Moreover, elite Indians fought against British rule with new laws modernizing civil service exams and opening India to foreign trade and industry.

Furthermore, the Indian National Congress involved more Indians in their direct contribution to the governance.

In addition to that, Mahatma Gandhi followed the policy of non-violence, the most significant contribution made towards uniting the Indians against the Britishers.

Also, after the pricy victory in World War II, the British were incapable of maintaining their overseas colonies due to financial constants.

☛ Also Read: Current Affairs Today

The emerging powers after WW II, the USA and the USSR were not interested in continuing the institution of colonialism. Some provisions of The Treaty of Versailles and the 14 Points of Woodrow Wilson focused on the right to self-determination.

India's struggle for Independence finally succeeded and bore its results in 1947. Non-violent protests, known as Satyagraha, initiated by Mahatma Gandhi, the different approaches to fighting for freedom, encouraging Indians to form a unity, and avoiding the orders of the British government under civil disobedience forced the dominators to lay their arms and surrender themselves.

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FAQs on India's Struggle for Independence

Q1. How long did India struggle for Independence before the British Raj ended?

The British Raj, also known as the Crown rule in India or Direct Rule in India, began in 1612 and eventually ended in 1947. India's struggle for Independence began with the very introduction of the East India Company's rule in Hindustan, which passed the baton to the crown bearer of the United Kingdom.

Q2. Did India's struggle for Independence conclude peacefully?

India's struggle for Independence and the partition was a painful experience. India's liberation came with a price - bloodshed and hatred due to the consolidation of the Curzon line.

Q3. Under whom did the British ruled the Indian Subcontinent during India's Struggle for Independence?

During India's struggle for Independence, the rule transferred from the East India Company to the crown bearer of the United Kingdoms, Queen Victoria.

Q4. Who all contributed to India's struggle for Independence?

Revolutionary freedom fighters like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Subash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and many more contributed to India's struggle for Independence.