India China Border Dispute

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 25, 2022, 12:19

Asia is the largest continent in the world. India and China are two Asian giants that share their borders. There has been a long-time dispute between India and China related to its borders.

The India-China Border Dispute is also referred to as Sino-Indian border issues. The relationship between India with China is currently going through a critical phase. In 2020, both the country's soldiers faced each other in a violent clash in the Galwan Valley and several fatalities were reported.

India China Border Dispute - Overview

The India-China Border Dispute is over the poorly demarcated borders and territories. The reason for the poor demarcation of the borders is its wild terrain composed of mountains, valleys, and rivers.

The border between the two countries stretches to 3,488 km and the actual line of control on these borders is not yet mutually agreed upon. Post Independence, India assumed that they inherited the boundaries after attaining independence from the British Empire, while China felt the opposite.

Both the countries were at war in 1962 which ended with a standoff between them.

India China Border Dispute Segments

The India-China Border Dispute is divided into three segments:

  • The Western boundary dispute is related to the Johnson Line established by the British. This border stretches up to the Kunlun Mountains and Aksai Chin. India after attaining Independence claimed Aksai Chin as part of India. China initially did not deny this but in the following years reversed its position.
  • The central border disputes are minor and the majority of issues around this border are resolved and agreed upon by both India and China.
  • The Eastern boundary dispute is related to the McMahon Line. Many attempts to resolve the issue failed and the dispute on this border remains unresolved to date. China firmly believes that Arunachal Pradesh is a section of South Tibet. This claim of China has been relentlessly rejected by India.
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Events that Heated the India-China Border Dispute

After a short period of war between India and China in 1962, a ceasefire due to international pressure resulted in China confining the Line of Actual Control. However, there were several instances where the India-China Border Dispute heated up.

Some of the instances include:

  • In 2017, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) constructed a road that entered the Dhoklam region by Bhutan. The road construction was halted by the Indian troops and in August, both the countries withdrew their forces.
  • In May 2020, the soldiers of both countries engaged in face-offs and scuffles. The incident resulted in the death of 20 Indian soldiers and several Chinese soldiers.
  • In September 2020, five youths were abducted from the McMahon Line in Arunachal Pradesh. The abducted youth were released after a week by the Chinese troops near the Kibithu border post.
  • China has ramped up infrastructure, built bunkers, deployed weaponry, and built villages in the disputed areas.
  • Both the countries have accused each other of firing shots and provoking military tensions.
  • In February 2021, both the countries agreed on disengagement from the South and North Banks of Pangong Lake.
  • In August 2021, Both agreed on disengagement from Gogra.

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India-China Border Disputes are one of the oldest matters that are unlikely to be resolved soon. The continuous disputes have resulted in several scuffles between the soldiers of the two countries. Despite several diplomatic and military talks between the two countries, no significant decision has been made. Both countries need to interact with complete respect towards others' sensitivities and concerns.

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FAQs on India China Border Dispute

Q1. When did the India-China Border Dispute start?

The India-China Border Dispute started after the Independence of India. India considered the borders as an inheritance from the British while the Chinese believed in the opposite.

Q2. What is the India-China Border Dispute?

The India-China Border Dispute is over the poorly demarcated borders and territories between the two countries.

Q3. What is the India-China Border Dispute also referred to as?

The India-China Border Dispute is also referred to as the Sino-Indian border dispute.

Q4. What are the consequences of the India-China Border Dispute?

Both the countries face immense tension due to the India-China Border Dispute. Both the countries have ramped up the infrastructure development work along the border. Despite several diplomatic and military talks, there is no significant move toward resolution.