Gandhi Irwin Pact

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Jun 14, 2022, 7:29

As the name suggests, Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed between Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India, and Mahatma Gandhi. The agreement was signed on March 5th, 1931 before the Second Round Table Conference held in London.

Gandhi Irwin Pact Objectives

Gandhi Irwin Pact is a significant aspect of Indian history as it was a way for the British Government to curb the nationalistic movements in the country against the colonial powers.

Gandhi Irwin Pact Significance

This pact holds great importance in history as it established the identity of the Indian National Congress as a party supported by millions of Indians.

It also helped pave the way for the 1935 Government of India Act that liberalized the diarchy system in India, allowing Indians to enter the two houses of legislatures as representatives.

After this, the 1937 elections held in provinces brought to power in the hands of the elected Indian members.

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Formation of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact

Mahatma Gandhi had proposed 11 demands in front of the British government in 1930 and gave an ultimatum to accept or reject them under the civil disobedience movement. The Salt march conducted in the country also garnered worldwide attention.

The British rule was criticized for the unjust treatment of Indians. Gandhiji along with many other activists was imprisoned. The viceroy, Lord Irwin wanted to bring an end to the issue, so he asked for a round table conference.

In January 1931, the Congress members were freed from prison. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the then President of Congress, permitted Gandhi to hold discussions with the viceroy. The two negotiated on the issue and signed the pact that later got recognized as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

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Demands of Gandhi Irwin Pact

The agreement made many propositions including the end of the Salt March, participation of the Congress in the round table conference, and the release of those arrested for joining the civil disobedience movement.

In the agreement, the government had agreed to withdraw any restrictions on the activities of the INC and allowed them to hold peaceful meetings. It also agreed to remove the salt tax, allowing the collection of salt by people near the coasts.

To conclude, according to the pact, the government would withdraw prosecutions for political offences except those that involved violence. Overall, the pact successfully broke the deadlock between the nationalist movement leaders and the British government.

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FAQs on Gandhi Irwin Pact

Q.1 Where was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed?

The Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the British Viceroy, Lord Irwin in Delhi.

Q.2 In the context of the Gandhi Irwin Pact, who attended all the round table conferences?

In the context of the Gandhi Irwin Pact, Tej Bahadur and Ambedkar had participated in all three round table conferences while Mahatma Gandhi attended the second conference.

Q.3 With regards to the Gandhi Irwin Pact, what were the key features of the 1935 Government of India Act?

With regard to the Gandhi Irwin Pact, The abolition of the Indian Council and its replacement with an advisory body were the main features of the act.

Q.4 Keeping the Gandhi Irwin Pact in mind, what was the All India Federation?

Keeping the Gandhi Irwin Pact in Mind, The federation was created to comprise the princely states and the provinces of British India. The lack of support from princely states led to the failure of the All India Federation.