By : Neha Dhyani
Updated : Jan 2, 2022, 13:04
As per records available with historians, physics is as old as the Archaic period in Greece (650-480 BC). Whether it was Thales' discovery of water as a basic element or Anaximander's proto-evolutionary theory that proposed Apeiron as a basic element, the Greeks contributed a lot to the field of Physics.
However, if asked 'Who is the father of modern physics?' we'd have to visit the early 16th century, the times of Galileo Galilei, to find the answer. Besides Galileo, Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein also contributed massively to physics. Hence, the title of the father of physics in the world goes to three renowned scientists: Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, and Albert Einstein.
Galileo Galilei was an Italian mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He earned the nickname 'Father of Physics' because of his pioneering role in finding the motion of bodies and developing the telescope. Incidentally, using the telescope, he confirmed the phases of Venus and also discovered Jupiter's four largest moons. Learners have been studying his empirical experiments and astronomical discoveries to this day. At the age of 19, Galileo discovered and verified the pendulum's isochronal nature and timed a swinging lamp's oscillations in the Pisa Cathedral. He also invented the concept of 'Hydrostatic Balance' and produced a treatise on solid bodies' centre of gravity. Galileo's experiments on the laws of bodies in motion were subject to intense criticism since they deviated strongly from the established norms of the Aristotelian school of physics. However, Galileo's theories and concepts formed the basis of the Laws of Motion (Newton) and the Theory of Relativity (Einstein).
Sir Isaac Newton was associated with Cambridge University as a physicist and mathematician. He was also a Royal Society of England fellow. Newton became famous with his three laws of motion which established the connection between motion and objects. He also discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation, which has been instrumental in defining the behaviour of falling bodies, including planets and celestial bodies. Newton also invented calculus in mathematics, which became an integral part of physics shortly after. Newton published his findings in the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), a publication that changed the field of mechanics and astronomy forever.
Albert Einstein transformed the landscape of physics with his Theory of Relativity and played an instrumental role in designing the theory of Quantum Mechanics. Albert Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc2 has etched his name in history books as the greatest physicist of all times. Because of his pioneering role in the field of modern science, and in general and theoretical physics in particular, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. He founded the law of the Photoelectric Effect, which played a pivotal role in the formation of the Quantum Theory.
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Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton, and Albert Einstein are all known as the 'Father of Modern Physics.'
Galileo Galilei is the name of the father of Observational Physics.
Albert Einstein invented the Theory of Relativity and played an instrumental role in designing the theory of Quantum Mechanics.
Newton conceptualised the three laws of motion that established a connection between motion and objects. He also discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation.
Galileo Galilei is known for his pioneering role in finding the motion of bodies and developing the telescope.