Environmental Conventions and Protocols

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 20, 2022, 9:47

Environmental Conventions and Protocols are an essential aspect from an exam's perspective. It would be best to go through all the conventions and protocols before appearing for UPSC or any state-level examination. Enclosed below is a list of all the essential environmental conventions.

List of Environmental Conventions and Protocols

Name of the Convention

Year of Establishment

Ramsar Convention




Bonn Convention


Vienna Convention


Montreal Protocol


Basel Convention


Convention on Biological Diversity


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


Rio Summit




Kyoto Protocol


Rotterdam Convention


Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety


Stockholm Convention




Nagoya Protocol


Minamata Convention


COP 21


Kigali Amendment


COP 24


COP 25


All of the conventions mentioned in the table have considerable importance, and you must know the fundamental essence of all of these conventions.

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Key Facts of Environmental Conventions and Protocols

There are several environmental conventions that you should know about, and some of them are listed below for your reference -

Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention is a wetlands convention signed in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971. Negotiations for the convention began in the 1960s between various governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to protect wetlands and their resources. It was finally implemented in 1975. In India, there are 42 Ramsar Sites designated under the Ramsar Convention.

Stockholm Convention

The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty signed in 2001 by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries and entered into force on May 17th, 2004. It was created to protect humans from dangerous POPs suspended in the air for an extended time. Through active steps taken by member nations, the convention strives to minimise or eliminate the use of POPs.

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CITES is the acronym for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CITES is an international treaty between states to protect the planet's plants and animals by assuring that international trading in their specimens does not jeopardise their survival. It was enacted in 1963 and became effective in 1975.

Convention on Biological Diversity

The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) is a United Nations treaty in charge of Biological Diversity conservation worldwide. The UNCBD is an essential aspect of international environmental treaties and protocols, notably those dealing with the environment, ecology, biodiversity, and the IAS Exam's international relations sections.

The International Relations section of the UPSC Syllabus's General Studies paper-2 includes a lot of international organisations and groups. International relations is a very dynamic section of the syllabus, and it is crucial for several papers in both the Prelims and Mains. Students studying for the UPSC 2022 and other government exams should be familiar with the topic.

Bonn Convention

The Bonn Convention was established to safeguard wild animal migratory species and habitats. It is the sole worldwide convention on migratory species, and it operates under the auspices of the UN Environment Programme. The convention includes legally binding agreements and non-binding Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) suited to conservation needs.

Vienna Convention

In 1988, the Vienna Convention went into effect, and by 2009, it had been ratified by all countries. The convention is known as the Ozone Layer Protection Treaty. The Vienna Convention is an essential topic for the IAS Exam because it was the 35th anniversary of the convention on September 16th.

Montreal Protocol

The agreement came into the picture to deal with substances known to deplete the ozone layer. The protocol regulates any consumption, emission and production of substances that deplete the ozone layer.

The Environmental Conventions and Protocols are a vital part of the UPSC exams. It would help to memorise the important facts of all of these protocols as they might be asked in your exams.

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FAQs on Environmental Conventions and Protocols

Q.1. In the Content of Environmental Conventions and Protocols, What is the purpose of the Kyoto Protocol?

In the Content of Environmental Conventions and Protocols, The Kyoto Protocol is an international protocol that aims at reducing the production of greenhouse gasses.

Q.2. In the Content of Environmental Conventions and Protocols, When was the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change adopted?

In the Content of Environmental Conventions and Protocols, The UN Framework Convention of Climate Change was adopted in 1992, and it came into power in the year 1994.

Q.3. What are some of the most important Environmental Conventions and Protocols?

Some of the important Environmental Conventions and Protocols are the Ramsar Convention, The Stockholm Convention, CITES, etc.

Q.4. In the Content of Environmental Conventions and Protocols, Which convention was adopted in the year 1979?

In the Content of Environmental Conventions and Protocols, The Bonn Convention was adopted in the year 1979.