Cyclone Disaster Management in India works to implement measures to prepare and mitigate the effects of an upcoming cyclone. India's geographical location towards the north of the Indian Ocean makes it vulnerable to numerous tropical cyclones and raging storms. In fact, India's long history of facing some of the worst cyclones, such as the Odisha Cyclone of 1999, the Nisarga, the Amphan, etc., make it vital to have constant monitoring in the form of a deft cyclone disaster management team. The Natural Disaster Management Authority and IMD are generally responsible for Cyclone Disaster Management in India.
Types of Cyclones
Cyclones are a system of winds that rotate inwards to an area of low pressure. The system of winds that emerge from high-pressure areas is known as anti-cyclones. Cyclones can further be segregated into two categories -
- Tropical Cyclone - Storms originating from warm tropical seas or oceans are known as tropical cyclones. These types of cyclones are characterized by high winds, low atmospheric pressure, and relentless rainfall. India generally faces tropical cyclones.
- Temperate Cyclone - Storms originating outside the tropics are generally referred to as temperate cyclones. These cyclones, also known as extratropical and frontal cyclones, generally occur in temperate and polar regions. These types of cyclones do not usually occur in India.
Initiatives Undertaken by Cyclone Disaster Management in India
The central government has launched numerous cyclone disaster management initiatives to chart the expansiveness and mitigate the future effects of upcoming cyclones. Some of the most important initiatives are -
- National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project - This project was mainly initiated to undertake various non-structural and structural measures to thwart the after-effects of cyclones in India. Mainly designed for the union territories and the coastal states of India, the project is aimed to protect the local communities from the aftermath of various hydro-meteorological calamities, including cyclones. The NCRM Project is being helmed by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) while the World Bank is providing financial assistance.
- Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project - In August 2019, the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change released a draft of the Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) for a more deft coastal management. It aims at coming out with comprehensive plans to manage coastal areas.
- Coastal Regulation Zones - The Coastal Regulation Zones notifications of 2018 and 2019 aim to bring forth sustainable development reforms in the coastal areas of India.
- Color-Coding of Cyclones By IMD - The famous colour-coding of natural calamities aims at making people aware of the intensity of calamities prior to the hazards. The colours used by IMD are green, yellow, orange, and red.
The Indian government, before an upcoming cyclone, takes various measures as a part of their cyclone disaster management initiative in collaboration with the affected state governments. Their measures include the creation of cyclone sheltering, artificial hills to help civilians cope with the floods, mangrove plantation, flood management, installation of levees, and so on.
FAQs on Cyclone Disaster Management in India
Q.1. Who looks after Cyclone Disaster Management in India?
The Natural Disaster Management Authority and IMD are generally responsible for Cyclone Disaster Management in India.
Q.2. Name the key initiatives taken by the centre for Cyclone Disaster Management in India.
The key initiatives taken by the centre for Cyclone Disaster Management in India are the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project, Coastal Regulation Zones, and Color coding by IMD.
Q.3. How does Cyclone Disaster Management in India categorise Cyclones?
Cyclonic winds can be classified under tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones. India generally faces tropical cyclones.
Q.4. How does Cyclone Disaster Management in India try to mitigate economic and personal losses?
Cyclone Disaster Management in India seeks the creation of various levees, artificial hills, and cyclone sheltering apart from engaging in rampant mangrove plantation activities to mitigate economic and personal losses.