Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 23, 2022, 8:50

The Province of Bengal was the hub of India's independence movement against British rule during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]. It caused most concern to the colonial rulers.

Acts and the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

The Sepoy mutiny in 1857 prompted the British Parliament to end the activities of the East India Company. The powers of the Indian government, territories, and revenues were transferred to the British crown, leading to the Crown's rule.

Let's take a look at the acts passed at this period of time:

An overview of the Indian Council Act of 1861 during Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

  • Introduced by: Lord Canning
  • Extension of members: 6-10 additional member
  • Three nominated Indians: Nawab of Benaras, Maharaja of Patiala, and Sir Dinkar Rao
  • Enacted by: Governor General's Councils
  • Restored legislative powers of Presidencies of Madras and Bombay

An overview of the Indian Councils Act 1892 during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

  • Introduced by: Richard Assheton Cross
  • Territorial extension: Direct control under British governance
  • Passed by: British Parliament
  • Royal assent: June 20, 1892
  • Started on: February 3, 1893

The Government of India Act (1858) during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

  • It led to the establishment of The Indian Secretary of State's office. A 15 member council of members did it.
  • The Governor-General (Lord Canning) received the title of Viceroy.
  • The Court of Directors was disbanded
  • The Board of Control was also disbanded.

Indian Councils Act 1909 during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

  • With this act, direct elections were held for the first time for legislative councils.
  • The legislative council comprised 60 members.
  • common electorate concept was accepted

The Government Of India Act 1919 during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

  • Two types of subjects were introduced- central and provincial. It also expanded voting rights, which allowed around 10% of people to vote.

The Government Of India Act 1935 during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

  • Aden and Burma were excluded from India.
  • This act led to the establishment of the RBI.

Indian Independence Act 1947

  • With this act, India was declared independent from British rule
  • The Viceroy and the Governor got the title of the constitutional member.
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History of the Indian Council Act

The Indian Council Act of 1861 and 1892 was institutionalised to cater for the administrative needs of the Indians. The Indian Council Act of 1861 was amended to restore the government's power and composition. It also focused on nurturing the executive roles in the legislation.

The British government introduced the portfolio system to increase the efficiency of the governor-general. On the other hand, it transformed the role of the executive council and adopted a miniature cabinet portfolio system. Each member of the executive system took on a distinct role in the home, revenue, military, finance, and law.

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The Parliament of the UK enacted the Indian Councils Act of 1892 to increase the size of the legislative councils in India. The Indian National Congress demanded a reform in the legislative council. They wanted to amend the principle of election. In addition, they needed a serious role in matters of finance.

Lord Dufferin became the Viceroy of India during the late nineteenth century. He agreed to come to terms with INC. However, the Secretary of State denied the proposal. Finally, the Act of 1892 was enacted, and major changes were made in the councils.

India gained its independence after a lot of struggle. There was a time when India was known as the golden sparrow around the globe, but after the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947], India changed drastically. At present, India is a country known to have the largest democracy.

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FAQs on Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]

Q1. What was the significance of Bengal during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947]?

The Province of Bengal was the hub of India's independence movement against British rule during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947].

Q2. Which act during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947] led to the establishment of RBI?

During the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947], the Government Of India Act 1935 led to the establishment of RBI.

Q3. Which act during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947] declared India independent?

Indian Independence Act 1947 declared India independent during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947].

Q4. Through which act during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947], elections were held for the first time?

Elections were held for the first time through the Indian Councils Act 1909 during the Crown Rule [1858 - 1947].