What is the Colonialism?

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Jun 2, 2022, 7:07

Colonialism refers to a policy where one nation seeks to exercise economic or political control over another nation's residents and geographical territory. Naturally, economic supremacy and exploitation of natural resources are a nation's primary purposes for indulging in Colonialism. Keep browsing the article below to learn more about Colonialism to prepare for your upcoming UPSC prelims and mains examination.

Colonialism - Overview

Colonialism indicates the authority of individuals' cultures and life. The primary objective of Colonialism is to extract economic advantages from the colony. Colonialism further results in authority over the life of residents in economic, political, cultural and colonial spheres. It is more nuanced, whereas Imperialism is more standard and confrontational.

The traditional definition of Colonialism is a policy and procedure of control in extending authority over more vulnerable individuals or locations. Even though numerous civilisations have employed the approach in different mainlands since ancient periods, it is extensively used in modern times to refer to European political or economic domination in various continents that started approximately in the late 16th century and prevailed until the early 1970s.

Different Types of Colonialism

Mentioned hereunder are some different types of Colonialism.

Settler Colonialism

Settler Colonialism concerns large scale immigration with religious, political and economic characteristics being premium motivators. It will replace any existing local population, and the colony in question will remain exploited for predominantly agricultural pursuits. The erstwhile territories of the United States of America, Australia and Canada are instances of Settler Colonialism.

Exploitation Colonialism

Exploitation Colonialism exploits natural resources and the regional residents as inexpensive labour that economically aids the motherland. An instance of this is regional labour in India and South East Asia. The indigenous residents were used as slave labour to produce cash crops such as rubber and tea.

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Surrogate Colonialism

Surrogate Colonialism concerns a settlement undertaking sponsored by a colonial administration. Most immigrants do not come from the same racial group as the ruling regime. Rhodesia and South Africa were instances of Surrogate Colonialism. In addition, many British emigrants became the dominant group despite being in the minority compared to the regional indigenous inhabitants.

Internal Colonialism

It is a concept of variable or discriminatory power structure between diverse regions of a state. It is shown how power and exploitation may move from whites from the colonising nation to white immigrant residents within a newly liberated nation.

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Causes of Colonialism

Mentioned hereunder are some causes of Colonialism.

Economic Consideration: The nations like France, England, Portugal and Spain designated their colonies chiefly for financial benefits.

Mercantilism: The Mercantilism policy was based on the belief that the economic growth of the metropolis was significant. The colonies should be managed to lead to the advantage of the motherland.

European Rivalry: The investigation and colonisation were initiated by Portugal and Spain. Gradually, other nations like England and France also entered into this rivalry. Developing brand-new colonies became a thing of national dignity. Furthermore, due to the different economic advantages of colonisation, a level of 'competitive Colonialism' began among the European authorities.

To disseminate Christianity: During the era of Discovery, the Catholic Church began a significant attempt to spread Christianity in the New era by converting people and forcing them to adopt Christianity. The establishment of Christian missionaries went simultaneously with the colonising actions of European powers such as France, Spain and Portugal.

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FAQs on Colonialism

Q.1. What do you mean by Colonialism?

Colonialism refers to a policy where one nation seeks to exercise economic or political control over another nation's residents and geographical territory. Naturally, economic supremacy and exploitation of natural resources are a nation's primary purposes for indulging in Colonialism.

Q.2. What is Settler Colonialism?

Settler Colonialism concerns large scale immigration with religious, political and economic characteristics being premium motivators.

Q.3. What does internal Colonialism mean?

It is a concept of variable or discriminatory power structure between diverse regions of a state. It is shown how power and exploitation may move from whites from the colonising nation to white immigrant residents within a newly liberated nation.

Q.4. What is exploitation Colonialism?

Exploitation Colonialism exploits natural resources and the regional residents as inexpensive labour that economically aids the motherland. An instance of this is regional labour in India and South East Asia. The indigenous residents were used as slave labour to produce cash crops such as rubber and tea.