Calendars in India

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Apr 11, 2022, 13:39

Calendars are an important tool to track your meetings, events, festivals, and other important dates and also remind you and help you visualize your schedule. It also helps us to be prompt, productive and also prioritized. It would not be wrong to say that it helps us stay accountable for every moment of our lives. There are four types of Calendars in India -

  • Vikram Samvat
  • Saka samvat
  • Hijri calendar 
  • Gregorian calendar

The National Calendar of India is the Saka calendar which has 365 days just like the Gregorian year and is divided into 12 months. Since its inception in 1957, it has represented a standardized calendar. The Vikram Samvat and the Saka Samvat are the main calendars of Hindus and are used to evaluate Holi and Diwali dates and other important festivals. These lunisolar cinders are traditionally used for social purposes as well. 

King Shalivanhana of the Satavahana dynasty founded the Saka era. King Kanishka is accredited for bringing the Saka calendar into existence, marking its 1st date Chaitra 1 on march 21st or march 22nd, taking into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time. The Indian national calendar, the Saka calendar, is used by the Gazette of India, news broadcast on All India Radio, and communications issued by the government alongside the Gregorian calendar.

The 12 Months of the National Calendar of India, the Saka Calendar Is

  1. Chaitra
  2. Vaisakha
  3. Jyeshtha
  4. Ashadha
  5. Shravan
  6. Bhadra
  7. Ashwin
  8. Kartika
  9. Agrahayan
  10. Pausha
  11. Magha
  12. Phalgun
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The Seven Days of the Saka Calendar

  • Ravivara 
  • Somvara
  • Mangalvara
  • Budhwara
  • Vrihaspoativara
  • Shukravara 
  • Shanivara. 

Important Facts About the National Calendar of India

  • This historical calendar corresponds to the Julian year 78.
  • It is often termed as Mahasakkarat era.
  • Indonesian Hindus also use the Saka calendar in Bali and java.
  • The Gazette of India officially recognizes it.

The Vikram Samvat Calendar

The Vikram Samvat calendar is named after King Vikramaditya and came into focus after the 9th century, marking the epigraphical artwork's beginning. Its new year begins with Baisakhi and ends with Chaitra. The names of the months are the same as those of the Saka calendar, except Arghayan is, often termed Mangsir. The days of the week are the same.

Important Features of Vikram Samvat Calendar in India

  • It marks the beginning of the Vikram era.
  • It started in 57BC before the 9th century with Vikramaditya.
  • Unlike the Saka calendar, this calendar has 354 days and is based on the movement of the moon.
  • The 2 phases of the Vikram Samvat months are the Shukla Paksha which begins with the new moon and ends with the full moon, and the Krishna Paksha, which begins with the full moon and ends with the new moon.
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FAQs on Calendars in India

Q1. What is the total number of Calendars in India?

The total number of Calendars in India is four.

Q1. What are the different types of Calendars in India?

The different types of Calendars in India are -

  • The Gregorian calendar
  • The Saka calendar is the National Calendar of India
  • The Vikram Samvat calendar 
  • The Hijri calendar

Q3. What is common between all the Calendars in India?

All the calendars have 12 months in a year, including the Calendars in India.

Q4. What is the purpose of Calendars in India?

The Calendars in India are a useful tool to track dates, festivals, important occasions, and even holidays and national events.