Agro Climatic Zones in India

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Apr 5, 2022, 12:53

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines an agro-climatic zone (ACZ) as a land unit that is climatically suited for a specific range of crops and cultivars and may be expressed properly or exactly in terms of major climate and growing seasons.

For detailed agricultural planning and establishing future plans, the Planning Commission of India created fifteen large Agro-Climatic Zones in India based on physiography, soils, geological structure, climate, farming patterns, and growth of irrigation and mineral resources.

List of Agro-Climatic Zones in India

There are 15 Agro-Climatic Zones in India. A few of them are explained below in detail.

Western Himalayas- Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand make up this region. Rice, maize, wheat, barley, and vegetables are farmed in the pastures on the steep slopes.

Lower Gangetic Plains- This region encompasses eastern Bihar, West Bengal, and Assam's Brahmaputra Valley. Rice and jute crops thrive under these conditions. Other major crops include maize, legumes, and potatoes. Temperate fruits such as apples, peaches, pears, almonds, and walnuts are also grown in the area.

Eastern Plateau Hills- The Chotanagpur plateau, the Rajmahal Hills, and Chhattisgarh lowlands are all part of this region. Rice, oilseeds, ragi, tur, groundnut, soybean, urad, potato, gram, castor, groundnut, millets, and maize are grown here.

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Eastern Himalayan Region- Comprises Arunachal Pradesh, Assam's hills, Tibet, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura. Rice, maize, potato, and tea are the main crops, as are pineapple, litchi, orange, and lime plantations.

Trans-Ganga Plains Region- Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Rajasthan's Ganganagar district are part of this region. The major crops are wheat, sugar, cotton, rice, chickpea, maize, millets, pulses, and oilseeds.

Middle Gangetic Plain Region- Comprises parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Rice, wheat, millets, maize, gram, barley, peas, mustard, and potato are the major crops.

Upper Gangetic Plains Region- Includes sections of Uttar Pradesh's central and western regions, as well as Uttarakhand's Hardwar and Udham Nagar districts.
The major crops are wheat, millet, sugarcane, rice, maize, chickpea, barley, oilseeds, pulses, and cotton.

Central Plateau and Hills Area- Comprises Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand, Bhander Plateau, Malwa Plateau, as well as Vindhyachal Hills. Millets, grain, gram, oilseeds, cotton, and sunflower are the main crops.

Western Plateau & Hills Area- Includes the southern half of the Malwa plateau and the Deccan plateau. Wheat, grams, millets, cotton, pulse, groundnut, oilseeds, sugarcane, wheat, maize, oranges, grapes, and bananas are the most important crops.

Southern Plateau and Hills Area- Covering Adilabad District in the north till Madurai District in the south, the region includes parts of southern Maharashtra and major parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu uplands. Millets, oilseeds, pulses, black tea, coffee, cardamom, and spices are among the major crops.

Eastern Coastal Plains & Hills Area- Includes Coromandal and Northern Circar beaches of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Rice, jute, cigarettes, sugarcane, maize, millets, and peanuts, are the major crops.

Western Coastal Plains and Ghats- Comprises Malabar and Konkan coastal plains, as well as the Sahyadris. Rice, cocoa, oilseeds, sugarcane, millets, lentils, and cotton are the main crops.

Gujarat Plains and Hills Area- Includes Kathiawar's hills and plains, as well as the lush Mahi and Sabarmati River valleys. Groundnut, cotton, millet, rice, oilseeds, wheat, and tobacco are the main crops.

Western Plain and Hill Region- Includes the area west of Aravalli in the Western Dry Region (Rajasthan). Bajra, jowar, moth, wheat, and gram are the main crops.

Island Region- Comprises the Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. The main crops are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, turmeric, and cassava.

The Agro-Climatic Zones in India are aimed at ensuring sufficient economic and agricultural growth. Agriculture, as well as related activities such as poultry, livestock farming, crop diversification, and rotation, must be given enough emphasis.

Similarly, to supplement farmer income and socioeconomic development, area-specific Agri clusters and Agro-based companies must be developed.

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FAQs on Agro Climatic Zones in India

Q.1. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, there are how many Agro-Climatic Zones in India?

The Planning Commission of India has defined 15 Agro-Climatic Zones in India.

Q.2. How many agro-climatic zones exist in the state of Uttar Pradesh?

Uttar Pradesh is divided into three Agro-Climatic Zones.

Q.3. What is the number of Agro-Climatic Zones in India according to the National Commission on Agriculture?

There are 127 Agro-Climatic Zones in India, according to the National Commission on Agriculture.

Q.4. How many Agro-Climatic Zones in India are in Jammu and Kashmir?

The low altitude subtropical zone, as well as the mid to high intermediate zone, are the two major Agro-Climatic Zones in India in the Jammu region.