Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school-based evaluation of students that covers all features of students’ development. It is a developmental process of assessment that stresses two-fold objectives i.e. on continuousness in evaluation and assessment of broad-based learning and behavioural outcomes on the other.
According to this scheme, the term `continuous’ is meant to accentuate that evaluation of identified aspects of students’ growth and development is a continuous process rather than an incident, built into the total teaching-learning process and spread over the whole duration of the academic session.
The second term `comprehensive’ means that the scheme tries to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of students’ growth and development.
Aims of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation:
- The main aim of CCE was to assess every aspect of the child during their presence at the school.
- CCE helps in minimizing the stress on children.
- Make assessment comprehensive & regular.
- Provide space for the teacher for prolific teaching.
- Provide a tool for detection & corrections.
- Produce learners with greater skill
Objectives of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation:
Various are the objectives of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation:
- It makes the process of teaching and learning a learner-centred activity.
- To make the assessment process an essential part of the teaching-learning process.
- To make a fair judgment and take timely decisions for learner’s growth, learning process, learning pace, and learning environment.
- To provide scope for learners for self-assessment.
- To use the evaluation process for improving student’s achievement through detection and correction.
Features of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation:
- The ‘continuous’ aspect of CCE takes care of ‘continual’ and ‘periodicity’ features of assessment.
- The ‘comprehensive’ elements of CCE takes care of assessment of all-round development of the child’s personality.
- The continuous and comprehensive evaluation includes both Scholastic as well as Co-Scholastic aspects of the pupil’s growth. Scholastic aspects cover curricular areas or subject-specific areas, while co-scholastic aspects consist of Life Skills, Co-Curricular Activities, Attitudes, and Values.
- Assessment in Co-Scholastic areas is done using the number of techniques on the basis of recognized criteria, while assessment in Life Skills is done on the basis of indicators of Assessment and checklists.
Functions of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation:
- CCE helps the teacher to systematize efficacious teaching strategies.
- Continuous evaluation serves to detect weaknesses and permits the teacher to ascertain certain individual learners.
- Through continuous assessments, students can know their strengths and weaknesses.
- CCE helps in identifying changes in attitudes and value systems.
- CCE provides information on the progress of students in scholastic and co-scholastic areas which results in forecasting the future success of the learners.
Aspects of CCE:
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation considers both the scholastic and co-scholastic aspects.
Scholastic assessment: Scholastic aspects include curricular areas or subject-specific areas. These areas focus on oral and written class tests, cycle tests, activity tests, and daily class performances of all subjects in order to improve writing and speaking skills. Scholastic assessment should be both Formative and Summative.
The formative assessment consists of diagnostic testing, which is the extent of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to alter teaching and learning activities to improve student achievement. It typically involves qualitative feedback for both student and teacher that is the basis of the details of content and performance. It is commonly compared with summative assessment, which attempts to monitor educational outcomes, often for purposes of external responsibility.
Features of Formative Assessment:
- It makes provision for effective feedback.
- It provides a plan for the active involvement of students in their own learning
- It helps the student to support their peers’ group and vice-versa.
- It helps in integrating diverse learning styles to decide how and what to teach.
- co-scholastic aspects include Life Skills, Co-Curricular Activities, Attitudes, and Values.
- It provides the student with a chance to improve their scores after they get feedback.
- It helps in the detection and correction of the assessment process.
Summative assessment is an assessment of students where the focus is on the consequences of a program. The goal of summative assessment is to assess student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against a norm.
Features of Summative assessment:
- It can be done at the end of a unit or semester to display the sum of what they learn or whatnot.
- This is the contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participants' development at a particular time.
- It is a conventional way of assessing students' work.
Co-Scholastic Areas of Assessment: The areas of Co-scholastic assessment focus on increasing the skills of a student in general knowledge, environmental education, physical education, art, music and dance, and computers. These are evaluated through quizzes, competitions, and activities.
School-based continuous and comprehensive evaluation system helps a learner in the following ways:
- It reduces stress on children.
- It makes evaluation comprehensive and regular.
- It provides a tool for the detection and correction of action.
- It provides space for the teacher for creative teaching.
- It produces learners with greater skills.
Characteristics of School-Based CCE:
School-based CCE has the following characteristics:
- It is comprehensive, broader, and continuous than the traditional system.
- It aims primarily to help learners for orderly learning and development.
- It takes care of the needs of the learner as responsible citizens of the future.
- It is more translucent, advanced, and provides more scope for interconnection among learners, teachers, and parents.
Paradigms/Criterion of Assessments:
Assessment of Learning: The ‘assessment of learning’ is defined as a process whereby someone tries to describe and measures the quantity of the knowledge, attitudes, or skills organized by another. In this type of learning teachers’ directions is most important and the student has meagre involvement in the design or execution of the assessment process in these situations. In this assessment teacher designs learning and collect proofs. A teacher also judges what has been learned by students or whatnot.
Assessment for learning: The assessment for learning involves an increased level of student freedom, but not without teacher instructions and cooperation. The assessment for learning is sometimes seen as having a relation to ‘formative assessment’.More emphasis laid towards giving useful advice to the student and less emphasis on the giving marks and grading function. In this assessment teacher designs learning and designs evaluation process with feedback to the student.
Assessment as learning: This assessment may be more connected with diagnostics assessment and can be constructed with more importance on peer learning. It generates chances for self-assessment and peer assessment. Students take increased responsibility in producing quality information about their learning and of others. Teachers and students construct together learning, assessment, and learning progress.
Tools and technique of learning:
There are two main purposes of evaluation. The first is to provide developmental feedback to the learner, secondly, it is to qualitatively classify a learner on the basis of their learning outcome against a set of norms.
Multiple tools can be used for assessment. Similarly, more than one assessment tool can be used in various assessment techniques. Assessment tools can be of two types i.e. standardized and non-standardized.
Standardized tools of assessment:
These tools have the characteristics of objectivity, reliability, validity, and quality of discerning between a high performer. Different types of validates, e.g. construct, content and concurrent validity take care of balance and pertinency. Speed is a factor in some tests, but not a common element in all tests. Psychological tests and inventories like intelligence and aptitude tests, interests and study habits inventories, attitudes scales, etc have those properties.
Non- standardized tests are teacher-made tests, rating scales, observation schedules, interview schedules, questionnaires, opinionnaires, checklists, etc. Now we will deal primarily with the tools of assessment set in the context of techniques. Some of the tools and techniques of evaluation are:
Portfolio: A student portfolio is a collection of academic work and other forms of educational proofs assembled for the purpose of evaluating coursework quality, learning progress, and academic achievement and determining whether students have met learning standards or other academic requirements for courses, grade-level.
Anecdotal Records: An anecdotal record is an examination that is written like a short story. They are the explanation of occasions or events that are important to the person perceiving. Anecdotal records are short, objective, and as correct as possible.
Checklists: Checklists usually offer a yes/no format in relation to student illustration of particular criteria. This is similar to a light switch; the light is either on or off. They may be used in recording observations of an individual, a group, or a whole class.
Rating Scales: Rating Scales allows teachers to show the degree or frequency of the behaviours, skills, and strategies displayed by the learner. To continue the light switch analogy, a rating scale is like a feeble switch that provides scope for performance levels.
Assignment: Assignments are a type of refinement to a variable. It is a task given to students by their teachers to be completed out of class time.
Observation: In observation information about a child is collected in a natural setting in and outside the classes with the help of observation.
Questions: Questions are the frequently applied tool for finding out what children know, think, imagine, and feel. A teacher, in the course of teaching, coming to know of learning difficulties in children by asking questions. Questions may be of various types like essay type questions, short answer type questions, very short answer type questions, objective type questions.
Document analysis: Document analysis is a type of qualitative research in which documents are appraised by the analyst to evaluate an estimation theme.
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