Constitutional, Non-Constitutional, Statutory, and Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India

By K Balaji|Updated : November 8th, 2022

Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial Bodies are various types of authorities in India. Some are mentioned in the Indian Constitution, and some are not, but the purpose of all these is to maintain the smooth functioning of the nation.

Constitutional, Statutory, and Quasi-Judicial Bodies and other essential bodies and terms are elaborated here for the candidates preparing for exams conducted by UPSC. Here, we will discuss all major governing bodies and a few examples of the UPSC conducted exams.

Table of Content

Constitutional Bodies

Indian constitution carries all the essential details required for the proper functioning of a great democratic nation. The constitution mentions these bodies for maintaining the regulation and functioning of the particular task assigned to them. Various constitutional bodies are ECI, AGI, UPSC, CAG, FCI, etc.

Statutory Regulatory and Various Quasi-Judicial Bodies PDF

Constitutional bodies and their powers are specifically mentioned in the constitution of India. These bodies and their functioning can only be changed or destroyed if changes are made in the constitution of India. Individual articles are written for these bodies.

A list of all 20 constitutional bodies and articles in which they are mentioned are provided below:

Constitutional Bodies

Article in Constitution

Attorney General of India

76

State Election Commission

243-K

Union Public Service Commission

315-323

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

148

Election Commission of India

324

Inter-State Council

263

State Finance Commission

243-I

District Planning Committee

243ZD

Metropolitan Planning Committee

243ZE

Advocate General of State

165

Finance Commission

280

Goods and Service Tax Council

279A

State Public Service Commission

315-323

National Commission for Scheduled Castes

338

Official Language Commission and Official Language Committee of Parliament

344

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

338A

National Commission for Backward Classes

338B

Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

350B

Backward Classes Commission

340

Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission

339

Non-Constitutional Bodies

Non-constitutional bodies are those regulatory bodies which do not find their honorable mention in the constitution of India but are given power by laws passed in the Indian Parliament. These are also known as Extra-Constitutional bodies.

Non-constitutional bodies can get their power in two ways, i.e., by statute or executive order. The bodies getting their powers by statute are known as the statuary bodies, and those non-constitutional bodies which do not get their powers from statute are called Non-statuary bodies.

Various Non-constitutional bodies are mentioned in the table provided below:

1

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

2

National Investigation Agency

3

Food Corporation of India (FCI)

4

Competition Commission of India

5

Law Commission of India

6

Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)

7

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

8

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)

9

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)

10

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

Statutory Body in India

The statutory bodies in India are those bodies which are formed by passing acts in Parliament and State Legislatures. These bodies are not mentioned in the constitution of India. These bodies are formed to work differently than the departmental executive structure.

The Government of India covers financial and functional prudence in the functioning of these bodies. A list of a few statutory bodies is provided below:

1

National Human Rights Commission

2

National Green Tribunal

3

National Commission for Women

4

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

5

National Commission for Minorities

6

National Law Commission

7

Armed Forces Tribunal

8

National Commission for Backward Classes

Non-Statutory Bodies in India

Non-Statutory bodies are those bodies which are non-constitutional bodies but are not regulated by the law. These bodies function privately. A few of the functions of these bodies are social care, education, etc. Various Non-statutory bodies are provided below:

1

Reserve Bank of India

2

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India

3

Securities and Exchange Board of India

Regulatory Bodies

Regulatory bodies are public organizations tasked with exercising independent control over a particular domain of human interaction in a supervisory or regulatory role. Regulatory bodies may be independent of the government. These are designated to enforce the standards and safety.

Legislative acts from regulatory bodies. A list of a few regulatory bodies is provided below:

1

RBI

2

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)

3

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)

4

Pension Fund Regulatory & Development Authority (PFRDA)

5

National Housing Bank (NHB)

6

Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)

7

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

8

Central Board of Film Certification

9

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India

Quasi-Judicial Bodies are the bodies with a partially judicial character. They are also called non-judicial bodies. It has the authority to hold hearings on and investigate disputed claims and alleged violations of statutes and regulations. Quasi-Judicial bodies are different from Statutory bodies, and differences between Quasi-Judicial bodies and Statutory bodies are essential for the UPSC-conducted exams.

They have various authorities, such as deciding the penalties for guilty individuals, can be arbitrators, etc. They can adjudicate on breach of discipline and misconduct of rules. A few of the Quasi-Judicial bodies active in India are:

1

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

2

Banking Ombudsman

3

Electricity Ombudsman

4

Income tax Ombudsman

5

National Human Rights Commission

6

State Information Commission

7

State Electricity Regulatory Commission

8

Insurance Ombudsman

9

State Sales tax Appellate Tribunal

10

State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial Bodies UPSC

The Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial bodies, and their functioning is essential for the competitive exams conducted by UPSC. Various questions can be seen in the UPSC Previous Year Question Papers based on these topics.

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FAQs on Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial Bodies

  • NITI Aayog is not a quasi-judicial body. It is an executive and Non-Statutory body. It is neither a statutory body nor a judicial or quasi-judicial body. The NITI Aayog was formed because of the resolution of the Union Cabinet. It is not mentioned in the constitution of India.

  • The statutory bodies are those formed by passing acts in the houses of Parliament. Whereas regulatory bodies are generally created by govt. They can impose regulations. And quasi-judicial bodies are non-judicial bodies with particular judicial rights.

  • The constitutional bodies are those listed in the Indian constitution, and their functions are written in respective articles, whereas the statutory bodies are non-constitutional. They are rather formed by members of the Parliaments.

  • A few of the Quasi-Judicial bodies are:

    • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
    • Banking Ombudsman
    • Electricity Ombudsman
    • Income tax Ombudsman
    • National Human Rights Commission
  • A Quasi-Judicial body that is not judicial but holds a right to hold hearings to investigate the statutes and regulations misconduct. They do not hold as much power as the Judicial bodies but a few. Examples of a few Quasi-Judicial bodies are the State Sales tax Appellate Tribunal, State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, etc.

  • There are a total of 20 constitutional bodies in India. A few of the constitutional bodies are:

    • State Finance Commission
    • District Planning Committee
    • Metropolitan Planning Committee
    • Advocate General of State
    • Finance Commission
  • Yes, UPSC is a constitutional body. All constitutional bodies find their mention in the Constitution of Inda, and so has UPSC. The UPSC found its mention in constitutions Article 315-323 Part XIV Chapter II. UPSC is assigned to conduct various examinations on behalf of the government of India.

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