Networking and Internet
Network: Computer Networks means an interconnected set of an autonomous system that permits distributed processing to information.
- Receiver Equipment (Modem)
- Receiver Computer
- Communication Channel (Telephone Cables)
- Sender Computer
- Sender equipment (Modem)
Types of Network
Wide Area Network (WAN): A wide Area Network (WAN) is a group Communication Technology, provides no limit of
Point to Point Network: When a packet is sent from one router to another intermediate router, the entire packet is stored at each intermediate router, stored there till the output line is free and then A subnet using this principle is called point to point or packet-switched network.
Topologies for a point-to-point Subnet:
Star: Each device has a dedicated point to point link only to a central controller, usually called a
Tree: A tree topology is a variation of a
Ring: Each device has a dedicated point to point line configuration only with the two devices on either side of
Bus: One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in the
Broadcast Networks: Broadcast networks have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network.
Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI)
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Seven layers of the OSI Model are:
- Application Layer: The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end-user, which means both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software
- Presentation Layer: The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities, in which the application-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a big mapping between
- Session Layer: The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
- Transport Layer: The transport layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable-length data sequences from a source to a destination host via one or more networks while maintaining the quality-of-service
- Network Layer: The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from one node to another connected to the same
- Datalink Layer: The data link layer provides node-to-node data transfer -- a link between two directly connected nodes. It detects and possibly corrects errors that may occur in the physical
- Physical Layer: It defines the electrical and physical specifications of the data It defines the relationship between a device and a physical transmission medium.
- Network Cables: Network cables are used to connect computers. The most commonly used cable is Category 5 cable RJ-45.
- Distributors: A computer can be connected to another one via a serial port but if we need to connect many computers to produce a network, this serial connection will not The solution is to use a central body to which other computers, printers, scanners etc. can be connected and then this body will manage or distribute network traffic
- Repeaters: A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of obstruction so that the signal can cover longer
- Bridge: A bridge is a product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for example, Ethernet or token ring).
- Routers: A router is a device that forwards data packets along A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. Router sare located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.
- Internal Network Cards: Network card is a necessary component of a computer without which a computer cannot be connected over an It is also known as a network adapter or Network Interface Card (NIC). Most branded computers have network cards pre-installed. Network cards are of two types: Internal and External Network Cards.
- External Network Cards: External network cards come in two flavours like Wireless and USB Wireless network card needs to be inserted into the motherboard but no network cable is required to connect to the network.
- Universal Serial Bus (USB): USB cards are easy to use and connect via USB Computers automatically detect USB cards and can install the drivers required to support the USB network card automatically.
- Modem (Modulator –DEModulator): Modem is a device attached to computers that can convert digital signals to analogue signals to analogue signals and vice.
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