Basics of Computer
Computer Fundamentals & Parts of a Computer:
Computer: A computer is a truly amazing machine that perform a specified sequence of operation as per the set of instructions (known as programs) given on a set of data (input) to generate desired information (output).
A complete computer system consists of four parts:
Ø Hardware: Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer.
Ø User: The computer operators are known as users.
Ø Software: Software is a set of electronic instructions consisting of complex codes
(Programs) that make the computer perform tasks.
Ø Data: Consists of raw facts, which the computer stores and reads in the form of numbers.
The following features characterize this electronic machine:
- Storage and Retrieval
- Repeated Processing Capabilities
- Low cost
System Software (OS)
A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instructions. Computer memory is the storage space in the computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. The memory is divided into a large number of small parts called cells. Each location or cell has a unique address that varies from zero to memory size minus one.
An Operating system is a program, which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware.
Five of the most common operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS, Linux, Android and Apple's iOS.
Characteristics of Operating System:
Memory Management -- keeps track of primary memory i.e. what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use etc. and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it.
Processor Management -- allocates the processor (CPU) to a process and de-allocates the processor when it is no longer required.
Device Management -- keeps track of all devices. This is also called the I/O controller that decides which process gets the device, when, and for how much time.
File Management -- allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources.
Security -- prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and similar other techniques.
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