Computer : Basics of Computer

By Asha Gupta|Updated : September 12th, 2021

Complete coverage of syllabus is a very important aspect for any competitive examination but before that important subject and their concept must be covered thoroughly. In this article, we are going to discuss Computer : Basics of Computer

Basics of Computer

Computer Fundamentals & Parts of a Computer:

 Computer: A computer is a truly amazing machine that perform a specified sequence of operation as per the set of instructions (known as programs) given on a set of data (input) to generate desired information (output).

 A complete computer system consists of four parts:

Ø  Hardware: Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer.

Ø  User: The computer operators are known as users.

Ø  Software: Software is a set of electronic instructions consisting of complex codes

(Programs) that make the computer perform tasks.

Ø  Data: Consists of raw facts, which the computer stores and reads in the form of numbers.

 Hardware:

Input Devices

Processing Devices

Output Devices

Storage Devices

Keyboard

Mother board

Monitor

Magnetic Disk

Microphone

Processor

Printer

Optical Disk

Mouse

RAM

Speaker

Flash Memory

Web camera

ROM

 

Magnetic Tape

Touch Screen

SMPS

 

 

Light Pen

 

 

 

 The following features characterize this electronic machine:

  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Storage and Retrieval
  • Repeated Processing Capabilities
  • Reliability
  • Flexibility
  • Low cost

Software:

Utility Software

Application Software

System Software (OS)

Utility Tools

Text

Single user

Multi-User

Customized Software

Graphics

DOS

Unix

 

Multimedia

Mac-OS

Windows Server

 

Language

Windows xp,7,8.1

 

 

Accounting

 

 

Memory

A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instructions. Computer memory is the storage space in the computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. The memory is divided into a large number of small parts called cells. Each location or cell has a unique address that varies from zero to memory size minus one.

Operating System

An Operating system is a program, which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware.

Five of the most common operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS, Linux, Android and Apple's iOS.

Characteristics of Operating System:

Memory Management -- keeps track of primary memory i.e. what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use etc. and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it.

Processor Management -- allocates the processor (CPU) to a process and de-allocates the processor when it is no longer required.

Device Management -- keeps track of all devices. This is also called the I/O controller that decides which process gets the device, when, and for how much time.

File Management -- allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources.

Security -- prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and similar other techniques.

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Posted by:

Asha GuptaAsha GuptaMember since Mar 2021
Associate Content Developer - AE/JE Non-technical
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AE & JE Exams

AE & JERVUNLUPSSSCSDEPSPCLPPSCSSC JEGPSCTNPSCAAIDFCCILUPRVUNLPSPCLOthersPracticeMock TestCourse
tags :AE & JE ExamsNHPC JE ExamRSMSSB JE ExamGSECL JE ExamRRB JE ExamNWDA JE Exam

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