UGC NET Paper-I: Communication Study Notes
1. What is Communication?
- The term communication has been derived from the latin word “communicare” or “communis” which means to make common. Communication means to make common facts, thoughts, information and requirements. Therefore, Communication is the exchange of thoughts, information, message etc. by way of speech, writing or signal.
2. Definition of Communication
Many renowned scholars have defined the term as follows:
- Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.
– Allen Louis
- Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.
– George Terry
- Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results.
– By Peter Little
3. Characteristics of Communication
- Two or More Persons: There must be at least two persons i.e. the sender of the message and the receiver.
- Exchange of Ideas: There must be an exchange of ideas, information, feelings, etc., among two or more than two persons.
- Mutual Understanding: Receiver should receive the information in the same manner with which it is being given.
- Continuous Process: Communication is an endless process. It never stops.
- Use of Words as well as Symbols: There can be many means of communication, like the oral, the written and symbolic.
4. Process of Communication
- Sender: He is the person who sends the message which may be a thought, idea, symbol, a picture report or an order and postures and gestures, even a momentary smile. He is the initiator of the message.
- Message: It is the content the sender wants to convey to the receiver. It is the information conveyed by words as in speech and write-ups, pictures, signs, or symbols depending upon the situation.
- Encoding: Encoding is transforming the message into an appropriate medium which may be verbal or non-verbal depending upon the situation, space, time, and nature of the message to be sent to the intended receiver. The sender encodes the message into a series of words, symbols or pictures.
- Media: Media refers to the channel or medium through which the message is transmitted. The message may be written or oral and it may be transmitted via a computer, telephone, cell phone, apps or televisions etc
- Receiver: Receiver is the person or group of person for which the message is meant for. He is at the other end of the process. He may be a listener, viewer or a reader. He needs to decode the message sent in the best possible manner such that the true intent of the communication is attained.
- Decoding: Decoding refers to interpreting or comprehending the sent message. The receiver interprets the message and tries to understand it in the best possible manner.
- Feedback: It refers to the response given by the receiver after interpreting the message. It is necessary to ensure that the message has been correctly decoded and comprehended the way it was sent.
In short, the process of communication can be defined as:
- The sender has an idea/information.
- Sender encodes the idea in words, symbols.
- The sender transmits the message through the medium/channel.
- The receiver receives the message and decodes it.
- The receiver sends feedback to the sender.
Seven C’s of Effective Communication
These are 7 terms that help to improve the communication skills and increases the chance that the message will be interpreted in exactly the same way as it was intended.
Seven C’s of Effective Communication
Four S’s of Communication
These are 4 terms starting with letter S, which add to the value of the message in Communication. These are as equally important as 7 C’s.
Four S’s of Effective Communication
Purpose/Objectives of Communication
The objectives of communication are numerous depending on the situation. Some of the common objectives of official communication are:
- to get or provide information,
- to ask for or give instructions or suggestions or advice
- to make requests,
- to persuade other people to agree with us.
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