First, of all let's get insights into the type of disability and what actions are needed.
Types of disability and education of the special child
1. Visual impairment –
American foundation has defined visual impairment as follows
- Blind - Child who has sight adjustment capacity of 20/200 Snellen
- Low vision – a child who has sight adjustment capacity of 20/70 Snellen to 20/200 Snellen
Education for visually impaired
- Make sure to give them a front seat in the classroom
- The classroom should have proper arrangements of lights
- Fonts of the book must be bold and dark for the low vision students
- A magnifying glass can be provided to the students
- Brail should be used to teach blind students
2. Hearing impairment -
Hearing impairment leads to loss of normal verbal communication. Due to distortion of sounds, differentiation of environmental sounds, including speech, is difficult; making sounds louder does not improve the clarity or quality of sound. Impairment is the most powerful instrument is of two types -
A. Completely deaf – these student’s hearing loss level is 90 decibels or more such children can not hear anything without using hearing aids
B. partial hearing loss- The most common type of hearing loss is known as sensorineural hearing loss. It is a permanent hearing loss that occurs when there is damage to either the tiny hair-like cells of the inner ear or the auditory nerve itself, which prevents or weakens the transfer of nerve signals to the brain. These blocked nerve signals carry information about the loudness and clarity of sounds.
Education for hearing impaired
- hearing aids are designed to simplify the process of listening aids must be available for the child
- we must teach them using sign language
- drawl so that child could do the lip reading
- various Body movements can be done to communicate with the child
- audio-visual material can be used
3. Mental retardation -
A distinctive feature of a human is the intellectual ability when his intellectual powers are not functioning normally, then the situation is called mental retardation intellectuality is measured as the IQ(intelligent quotient) level
Children's education -
- severely mentally retarded children are taught The daily activities of the toilet, brushing, combing, dressing, etc.
- social skills also must be there, we should teach them how to shake the hand, greet elders and celebration festivals
- leisure time activities such as listening to music, playing games, reading books, watching TV and collecting coins can be taught
- They are also taught mathematical skills such as counting, adding, subtraction, etc.
- we should use completely different teaching methods to teach the special child as compared to the normal child
4. Locomotor disability -
Disability of the bones, joints or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or a usual form of cerebral palsy. Some common conditions giving raise to locomotor disability could be poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, amputation, injuries of the spine, head, soft tissues, fractures, muscular dystrophies, etc.
Types of locomotor disability
1. Neuro-logical damage
2. Muscle and bone-related damage
3. A congenital malformation - The damage caused by a general lack, drug and toxin effects, medicine, etc.
Children's education -
- They should be in regular classes with a normal child
- Various accessories for these kids are very helpful as wheelchairs
- The teacher also should pay attention to developing social, emotional and physical skills
- They must be trained in motor skills
5. Learning disability -
A condition giving rise to learning difficulties, especially when not associated with a physical disability. learning disabilities include the following:
- Difficulty with reading and/or writing
- Problems with math skills
- Difficulty remembering
- Problems paying attention
- Trouble following directions
- Poor coordination
- Difficulty with concepts related to time
- Problems staying organized
The type of learning disability –
- Dyspraxia- The inability to motor plan, to make an appropriate body response.
- Dysgraphia- Difficulty with the act of writing both in the technical as well as the expressive sense. There may also be difficulty with spelling.
- Dyscalculia- Difficulty with calculations.
- Dyslexia - a general term for disorders that involve difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters, and other symbols, but that does not affect general intelligence.
Children's education -
- They must be provided resource room
- They require consultant
- They use to teach a child to another child (group teaching)
2. Inclusive Education -
The issue of social access and equity are far too complex. While the gaps in average enrolments between disadvantaged groups like SC, ST, Muslims, girls and Children with special needs and the general population have decreased, there is still a considerably large gap in learning levels with historically disadvantaged and economically weaker children having significantly lower learning outcomes. Large and growing learning gaps threaten the equity gains achieved on the enrolment front because children with lower levels of learning are more likely to drop out. We need to examine current interventions in bridging the gender and social gaps and identify focused strategies for effective inclusion.
Need and importance of inclusive education
- Develop individual strengths and gifts, with high and appropriate expectations for each child.
- Work on individual goals while participating in the life of the classroom with other students their age.
- Involve their parents in their education and the activities of their local schools.
- Foster a school culture of respect and belonging. Inclusive education provides opportunities to learn about and accept individual differences, lessening the impact of harassment and bullying.
- Develop friendships with a wide variety of other children, each with their individual needs and abilities.
- Positively affect both their school and community to appreciate diversity and inclusion on a broader level.
The purpose of inclusive education is EQUITY.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
Note: All the study notes are available in Hindi as well as the English language. Click on A/अ to change the language.
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