Human intelligence varies, the intelligence matters, because smarter people generally earn more money, enjoy better health, and live longer as well. But where does it comes from? And how it is built? Intelligence is the ability to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively to deal with the challenges of life.
Intelligence and Its Theories
Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand and interact with one’s environment. It includes various specific abilities such as
- Adaptability to a new environment.
- Capacity for reason and abstract thought.
- Ability to comprehend relationships.
- Capacity for original and productive thought.
- Ability to evaluate and judge.
The environment in this has a wider meaning including a person’s surroundings may be his workplace, family, or classroom. While intelligence is one of the most talked-about subjects within psychology, there is no standard definition that could define it.
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Major Theories of Intelligence
1. Charles Spearman-General Intelligence (g factor)
He concluded that intelligence is the general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.
2. Louis L. Thurstone- Primary Mental Abilities (7)
He focused on seven different abilities-
- Verbal comprehension
- Perceptual speed
- Numerical ability
- Word fluency
- Associative memory
- Spatial visualization
3. Howard Gardener-Multiple Intelligences (8)
He proposed eight theories in his book ‘Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence’.He emphasized both biological as well as cultural aspects in the development of intelligence.
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Using Multiple Intelligences in the Classrooms:
The theory states that all these are needed to productively function in society and teachers should structure the presentation of material in such a style that could engage most or all of the intelligence. For eg. the teacher can suggest that an especially musically intelligent child can learn about the revolutionary war by making up a song describing the event.
Toward A More Authentic Assessment:
Teachers must seek to assess their students’ learning in ways that will give an accurate overview of their strengths and weaknesses. So, a teacher needs to create an ‘intelligence profile’ for each student which would allow the teacher to properly assess the child’s progress.
Best Books for CDP Preparation:
Candidates must choose only the best books for exam preparation. These are the best CTET books given in tabular form for the preparation of the CDP section for the upcoming TET Examinations.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education|