Chief Ministers of India: Powers, Functions, Appointment, Chief Minister UPSC Notes

By K Balaji|Updated : November 16th, 2022

Chief Minister is the state government's head since they have genuine executive authority. Along with the Governor and the Advocate-General of State, he is supported by his council of ministers, who are all members of the state government. It is an extremely important position, and there are a plethora of roles and responsibilities that the Chief Minister has to fulfil in order to look after their respective states.

The Chief Minister is the head of the state government, similar to the Prime Minister, who heads the nation at the federal level. The term of the Chief Minister is 5 years as per Article 75 of the Constitution. However, the tenure also depends on the confidence he enjoys within the majority in the legislative assembly. Read about the appointment, powers and functions of the Chief Minister in this article to understand the various aspects of this prestigious post, important from the UPSC exam perspective.

Table of Content

Who is Chief Minister of India?

In India, the Chief Minister is a state’s head executive elected by the legislative assembly. They also serve as the head of the council of ministers and have the power regarding the various functionalities of their state. They are responsible for ensuring that various state departments are working properly and efficiently, in addition to ensuring the public well-being of the people.

Chief Ministers of India PDF

Chief Minister of India is responsible for running everyday operations. They are the creators of various policies and are also responsible for conveying them. They are provided with the power to take decisions regarding the state and the people. Chief Minister of India is appointed by Governor. However, at all times, it is important they maintain the majority support in their favour or else they can get fired from the position.

Powers and Functions of Chief Minister

Chief Ministers have the most power in a state. As the executive head, they have various administrative powers and control over the state’s resources. They also have various functions which they have to perform every day as part of their duties. The powers and functions of a Chief Minister are listed below.

  • As per Article 167, Chief Minister serves as a point of contact between the Governor and the ministers of the state council.
  • He/She also serves as an advisor to the Governor of the state on the appointment of officials for the Public Service Commission and State Election Commission.
  • CM is the chairman of the State Planning Board.
  • They also have to listen to the grievances of the public and provide solutions for the same.
  • Chief Minister for a year at a time serves as vice-chairman of various zonal councils.
  • He/She is also appointed as the principal spokesperson for the state government.
  • CM is responsible for the management of any political crisis that may arise during his term.
  • Chief Minister also works as the leader of the MLAs elected by the public and looks after their work.

Appointment of Chief Minister

Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor of the state, and this is mandated by Article 164 of the Constitution. However, the Governor cannot arbitrarily pick anyone that they favour being the Chief Minister; there are certain rules and values they must adhere to exercise their power.

The CM of a state is the chief of the state. Hence, they are chosen from the party that garners the maximum votes in the state’s assembly election. The member of the party who becomes the Chief Minister can only attain and maintain his or her position as long as they have the support of the majority. They must also be a member of the state legislature themselves. If they are not, they can only be in their position for six months, after which they will be removed.

Eligibility for Chief Minister of India

To become a Chief Minister of India, there are certain eligibility norms which must be fulfilled by the candidate. These norms are mentioned below:

  • Candidate must be 25 years of age or more.
  • Candidate must be a citizen of India.
  • Candidate must be a member of the state legislature.

There is no maximum age limit or education qualification criteria set for the role of Chief Minister. Hence, the only eligibility criteria one must fulfil are the ones mentioned above.

Relationship Between Governor and Chief Minister

The relationship between the Chief Minister and the Governor is crucial for the state. The powers of the Chief Minister are akin to those of the Prime Minister at the state level. Similarly, the power of the Governor is similar to those of the President of India at the state level. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister, and then CM advises the former on various matters. In times of crisis, Governor has the power to remove CM and impose President’s rule in a state. Governor is the actual state head as per the constitution. However, the actual executive and administrative power lie with the CM, who is chosen by the public.

Chief Minister of India Salary

Each Chief Minister of India is entitled to a salary of Rs. 50,000 per month. This salary is in addition to the salary they also receive as MLAs. It is important to note that before an individual becomes CM, they are MLAs of their respective area and receive the salary accordingly. Apart from the basic pay, Chief Minister also receives various state benefits such as housing, transport, pension, etc.

Tenure of Chief Minister of India

The tenure of the Chief Minister of India is 5 years. This tenure is purely based on the support they receive from the majority of the legislative assembly. During the five years of their tenure, if at any point in time, they lose the support of the majority, then they will be fired from their post as Chief Minister.

Chief Minister of India: State-Wise List

India has 28 states, and each state has its own Chief Minister. The state-wise Chief Minister list is provided below.

Chief Minister

State

YS Jagan Mohan Reddy

Andhra Pradesh

Pema Khandu

Arunachal Pradesh

Himanta Biswa Sarma

Assam

Nitish Kumar

Bihar

Bhupesh Baghel

Chhattisgarh

Arvind Kejriwal

Delhi

Pramod Sawant

Goa

Bhupendra Patel

Gujarat

Manohar Lal

Haryana

Jairam Thakur

Himachal Pradesh

Hemant Soren

Jharkhand

Basavaraj Bommai

Karnataka

Pinarayi Vijayan

Kerala

Shivraj Singh Chouhan

Madhya Pradesh

Eknath Shinde

Maharashtra

N. Biren Singh

Manipur

Conrad Kongkal Sangma

Meghalaya

Pu Zoramthanga

Mizoram

Neiphiu Rio

Nagaland

Naveen Patnaik

Odisha

N. Rangaswamy

Puducherry

Bhagwant Singh Mann

Punjab

Ashok Gehlot

Rajasthan

PS Golay

Sikkim

M. K. Stalin

Tamil Nadu

K Chandrasekhar Rao

Telangana

Manik Saha

Tripura

Yogi Aditya Nath

Uttar Pradesh

Pushkar Singh Dhami

Uttarakhand

Mamata Banerjee

West Bengal

Chief Minister UPSC

Candidates will find Chief Minister UPSC notes to be of great use to easily solve the questions based on this topic. In UPSC Prelims, especially, questions are often asked about the powers and functions of a Chief Minister, in addition to facts about their appointment, tenure, relationship with the governor, etc. Also, questions are often asked about those personalities whose tenure has been remarkable for one reason or another. Below, we have listed down some of the important facts about the Chief Minister of India that candidates will find useful while preparing for the UPSC exam.

  • The youngest Chief Minister of India is Pema Khandu, who took over the office of CM of Arunachal Pradesh in the year 2016 and still holds the position.
  • Sucheta Kriplani was the first female CM in India. She was the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from 1963-67.
  • Syeda Anwara Taimur was elected as the CM of Assam in 1980. She was the first Muslim woman Chief Minister of India.
  • The longest-serving CM of India is Pawan Kumar Chambling of Sikkim, whereas the longest-serving incumbent CM of India is Naveen Patnayak of Odisha.
  • The father of Captain Amrinder Singh, the oldest Chief Minister of India, was the last Maharaja of Patiala.
Important Notes for UPSC
ColonialismArmy Chief of India
Revolutionary Movement in IndiaFreedom of Speech
Direct Tax and Indirect TaxAgro Climatic Zones of India
Moderate Phase (1885 to 1905)Motions in Parliament
Swaraj PartyAssent to Bills

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FAQs on Chief Ministers of India

  • The Chief Minister in India is a prestigious position as the head of the state. It is held by a person who has the support of the majority in the legislative assembly. Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor and is responsible for the working of the state.

  • The longest-serving Chief Minister of India is Pawan Kumar Chamling. He became the Chief Minister of Sikkim in December 1994 and held his office for 24 years and 165 days.

  • The oldest Chief Minister of India is Captain Amarinder Singh. He was born on 11 March 1942. He served as the CM of Punjab from 2002 to 2007 and then also from 2017 to 2021.

  • The youngest Chief Minister of India is Pema Khandu. He was elected as the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh in the year 2016 at the age of 37 years, and since then has become the youngest person to hold the office of CM.

  • The first female Chief Minister of India was Sucheta Kripalani, who became the CM of Uttar Pradesh in 1963. She held the office till 1967. She was also an active participant in Indian National Movement for the country’s freedom.

  • The functions of a Chief Minister include working things out with the Governor and advising them on the appointment of various officials for important committees. They also serve as heads of various other committees and are responsible for the public's grievances.

  • Aspirants who are preparing for the UPSC exam must study about the Chief Ministers of India. There are various questions that are asked about this topic. The various nuances of being a Chief Minister as well as the names of the officeholders for each state, can be found in the Chief Minister UPSC notes provided by BYJU’s Exam Prep. These notes are detailed and will provide aspirants with all the important information.

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