Learning may be defined as " any relatively permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential produced by experience". Learning is defined and characterized as a psychological process. For example:- Changes due to practice and experience, which are relatively permanent. Learning is an inferred process, It involves a sequence of psychological events as learning is a social activity one learns from our family members, relatives, and friends. Socialization is the key to learning, sometimes a single experience can lead to learning.
PARADIGMS OF LEARNING
Learning takes place in many ways. The simplest kind of learning is called conditioning. There are two types of conditioning:-
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Instrumental/Operant Conditioning
In addition, to the above-mentioned learning, we have observational learning, cognitive learning, verbal learning, concept learning, and skill learning.
1. Proposed by Ivan P. Pavlov
2. As Ivan P. Pavlov was interested in the physiology of digestion, he executed experiments on Dogs as he observes that Dogs started secreting saliva as they see the empty plate on which food used to serve to them.
3. Ivan P.Pavlov designed an experiment with the dogs in the first phase, a dog was placed in a box and harnessed, the dog was left in the box for some time and this process is repeated a number of times, then the dog was kept hungry and placed in harness with one end of the tube ending in the jaw and other ends in the glass jar. A bell was sounded and immediately thereafter food was served to the dog, the dog was allowed to eat when the meat is presented it was preceded by the sound of a bell, after the number of trails, the bell was rung but no food was served and the dog still salivate so the association of the ringing of the bell is depicted by the dog as food is going to be served (meat)and the dog started salivating this is termed as conditioning.
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OPERANT /INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
1. Proposed by B.F.Skinner
2. Skinner studied the occurrence of voluntary responses when an organism operates in the environment. He called them operants those operants are behaviors or responses, which are emitted by animals and human beings voluntarily and are under their control. The term operant is used because the organism operates on the environment. The conditioning of operant behavior is called operant conditioning. Skinner conducted his studies on rats and pigeons. For example:- children who want to chocolates in the absence of their parents locate the box in which their parents hide chocolates so when the child wants to have them they keep on tapping their parents towards it and try to be polite to get one chocolate.
1. Reinforcement- is the operation of administering a reinforcer by the experimenter. It is of 2 types:- Positive and Negative
2. Extinction- means the disappearance of a learned response due to the removal of reinforcement from the situation in which the response used to occur.
5. Spontaneous Recovery
TRANSFER OF LEARNING
The term transfer of learning is called a transfer effect. It refers to the effects of prior learning on new learning. The transfer is considered to be positive if the earlier learning facilitates current learning, It is considered to be a negative transfer if new learning is retarded. The absence of a facilitative or retarding effect means zero transfer. Transfer of learning totally depends on the social activity we perform, how much we interact, and perform actions all depends on how much socialized we are.
FACTORS FACILITATING LEARNING
1. Continuous vs Partial Reinforcement-
3. Preparedness for learning
1. Relational Style- In this style information is perceived as a part of the total picture and exhibits intuitive learning. This style conflicts with the traditional school environment
2. Analytical Style- In this style information is perceived as a miniature of the total picture focuses only on the details and exhibits sequential and structured thinking. This style matches most school environments.
It refers to the difficulty in the acquisition of learning, reading, writing, speaking, reasoning, and mathematical activities. For example -Dyslexia:- when the child fails to copy letters and words: for example:- they fail to distinguish between b and d, p and q, was and saw.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|