Mitochondria and chloroplasts
- The only organelles in the cell that have their own genetic material are the mitochondria and chloroplasts.
- Both of these organelles have their own DNA and ribosomes, which are in charge of expressing the genes found in the extra-chromosomal DNA.
- These two organelles are referred regarded as semi-autonomous organelles for this reason.
Functions of Mitochondria
- regulate the cell's metabolic processes.
- assists in the liver cells' ability to divide and promotes the growth of new cells. The process of ammonia detoxification plays a significant role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death, which is responsible for the production of several hormones, including testosterone and oestrogen, as well as specific blood components. This process also helps to maintain an adequate level of calcium ions inside the cell's compartments.
- Furthermore, it takes part in numerous biological processes such as cell division, proliferation, signaling, and senescence. The cell cycle is also regulated by it.
Functions of Chloroplasts
- The production of food through the mechanism of photosynthesis is the chloroplast's most significant function.
- turns light energy into chemical energy by absorbing it.
- All green plants have a component inside their chloroplasts called chlorophyll, which captures solar energy and is utilized to create food.
- produces NADPH and molecular oxygen (O2) from water by photolysis.
- uses photosynthesis to create ATP, or adenosine triphosphate.
- During the Calvin Cycle, also known as the dark reaction of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide (CO2) derived from the air is utilised to produce carbon and sugar.
Can you name the two organelles we have studied that contain their own genetic material?
The two organelles that we have looked at that have their own genetic material are the chloroplast and the mitochondria. Popularly known as the “Powerhouse of the cell,” mitochondria are a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.