Modern History of Bihar Part-1
The arrival of Europeans:
- Portuguese - traded in spices for textiles especially cotton
- British - factory at Alamganj in Patna in 1620 for saltpetre, presently the East India Company factory at Gulzar Bagh is turned into govt. printing press.
- Dutch - interested in cotton textiles, saltpetre and food grains.
- Danes - established the factory at Nepali Kothi in Patna.
Battle of Buxar - 22nd October 1764:
- British won the Battle led by Hector Munro against the combined army of Mughals under Shah Alam II; Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal and Shuja-Ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh.
- Two separate Treaties were signed at Allahabad
- With the Mughals on 12th August 1765
- With the Nawab of Awadh on 16th August 1765.
- Mughals and the Nawab of Bengal lost effective control of the province of Bengal constituting present-day West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Bangladesh.
- The Company got Diwani Rights of these provinces i.e. collection of revenues.
- Nawab of Awadh paid huge reparations and also ceded some of his territories.
Bihar and Bengal Famine 1770 and 1783:
- In 1783 when famine stuck again, the then Governor-General Warren Hastings ordered for the massive dome-shaped granary of Golghar.
- Golghar was built by Captain John Garstin in 1786.
Permanent Settlement of Zamindari System:
- It was introduced in Bengal, Orissa, and districts of Benaras and northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis.
- Its architect was John Shore.
- It declared Zamindars as owners of the land.
- Zamindars could keep 1/11th of the revenue collected and give 10/11th to the British. They were free to fix the rents and exploited the tenants.
- The rise of absentee landlords and moneylenders.
- Later the Bengal Tenancy Act was passed in 1885 to define the rights of the tenants.
Revolt of 1857 in Bihar:
- Governor-General - Lord Canning
- Started on 12th June 1857 in Deoghar district (now in Jharkhand) at the headquarters of 32nd Infantry Regiment.
- On 3rd July 1857, the revolt started in Patna under bookseller Pir Ali.
- On 25th July 1857, the revolt started in Darbhanga which marked the beginning of the widespread revolt in Bihar.
- Notable figure: Babu Kuwar Singh of Jagdishpur (currently in Bhojpur district) occupied Arrah and he also defeated the British with Nana Saheb at Azamgarh (UP).
Administration of Bihar by the Company:
- East India Company created a post of Deputy Governor to administer Bihar. Raja Ram Narayan and Shitab Roy were important Deputy Governors after the Battle of Buxar.
- Revenue Council of Patna was constituted in 1770 later replaced by the Revenue Chief of Bihar in 1781.
- When Delhi became the capital in 1911, the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out from Bengal making Patna its capital.
- 22nd March 1912 Bihar was constituted.
- Educational institutions by British:
- Patna College
- Patna Science College
- Bihar College of Engineering
- Prince of Wales Medical College
- Patna Veterinary College
- of India Act 1935 divided Bihar into two separate provinces of Bihar and Orissa
Home Rule League in Bihar:
- Established in Bankipore (Patna) on 16th December 1916
- President - Mazhar-ul-Haque
- Vice-Presidents - Sarfaraz Hussain Khan and Purnendu Narain Sinha
- Secretaries - Chandravanshi Sahay and Baijnath Narain Singh
- Sachindranath Sanyal - established the branch of Anushilan Samiti in Patna in 1913
- Bankimchandra Mitra of B.N. College - managed Anushilan Samiti, formed Hindu Boys Association for teaching Vivekananda’s ideas.
- Benaras Conspiracy Case 1915 - Sachindranath Sanyal and Bankimchandra Mitra
- Patna Yuvak Sangh formed in 1927
- Bihar Yuvak Sangh 1928 in Motihari - Gyan Shah
- Patliputta Yuvak Sangh 1929 - formed in Patna by Rambriksha Benipuri and Ambika Kant Singh
- Monthly Magazine YUVAK was started in Patna.
- Female revolutionaries - Kusum Kumari Devi and Gauri Das
- Limitations - religious overemphasis kept Muslims aloof, limited upper-caste involvement and lack of mass involvement made it a subject of govt. suppression
- Raj Kumar Shukla invited Mahatma Gandhi to look into the Indigo Planters problem.
- Gandhi’s his first Satyagraha in 1917. Other leaders Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Singh, Mazhar-ul-Haque, Mahadeo Desai, Narhari Parikh and J B Kriplani.
- European planters were forcing farmers to plant indigo on 3/20th of their lands called the Tinkathiya system.
- It forced the British to appoint a committee to make the inquiry. Gandhi was also a member. He convinced the committee to abolish the Tinkathiya system and pay the peasants 25% compensation.
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