Bharat Stage Norms: About; Background; Differences between BS-VI and BS-IV; Challenges; Way Forward
- These are the norms instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles
- To bring the standards into force, the Central pollution control board (CPCB) sets timelines and standards which have to be followed by automakers
- BS norms are based on European emission standards, which, for example, are referred to similarly as "Euro 4" and "Euro 6."
- India introduced emission norms in 1991, and by 1996 most vehicle manufacturers had to do technology upgrades such as the catalytic converters to cut exhaust emissions.
- In 2014, Saumitra Chaudhary committee gave its recommendations on Auto fuel vision policy 2025 which had recommended the implementation of BS-IV norms in (2017), BS-V norms in (2019), and BS-VI norms in (2024)
- In 2016, the Central Government announced that the country would skip the Bs-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020.
- Currently, BS-IV norms have been enforced in India since April 2017.
- After this, the supreme court of India ordered barring of sale of Bharat Stage IV vehicles from April 2020.
Difference between the BS-VI in comparison with BS-IV
- Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology- It reduces oxides of nitrogen by injecting an aqueous urea solution into the system. Hence, NOx from diesel cars can be reduced by nearly 70%.
- In the petrol cars, they can be narrowed down by 25%.
- Sulphur Content- While the BS-IV fuels contain 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, the BS-VI grade fuel only has ten ppm sulphur content.
- Particulate Matter- in diesel cars will be reduced by 80%.
- Mandatory on-board diagnostics (OBD)- It informs the vehicle owner or the repair technician about how efficient the systems in the vehicles are.
- RDE (Real Driving Emission) will be introduced that will measure the emission in real-world conditions and not just under test conditions.
- Huge Cost for automakers: Moving to BS-VI skipping BS-V will require significant technological upgrades for which auto companies may have to invest heavily. Automakers were supposed to make their models BS-IV compliant by April 1, 2017. Some automobile makers have met the targets and updated their products, but a lot of vehicles left to be sold into the market.
- Timeframe: Normally, it takes four years to upgrade, and here the companies have to skip the BS V altogether and upgrade directly to BS-VI.
- Smaller bonnet cars of India may not be able to keep Diesel Particulate Filter in them, which was supposed to be a part of the BS-V upgrade.
- Impact on buyers: This can have the effect of making cars and other vehicles more expensive.
- Directly applying the Euro norms is problematic because the driving conditions in India are different from Europe.
- Further, improving the emission will not alone solve the problem of vehicular pollution as the number of vehicles is disproportionately high in Indian cities.
- A successful transition to BS-VI norms will be a landmark event for the country, and it must be taken in a mission mode approach by all the stakeholders.
- Governments should incentivize the automobile manufacturers and partner the oil companies to manage this transition.
Facts related to Bharat stage 6
The capital of India, Delhi in April 2018 became the first city in the country to move from BS-IV grade petrol and diesel to BS-VI fuels.
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