Input-Output Questions are a major topic asked in many of the Banking Exams such as SBI PO, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk RRB PO etc. You can expect a set of 5 questions from this topic. This topic can be quite easy to attempt and prove to be scoring if you have a fair idea of the basics of this topic. Today we are sharing with you all the information about this topic that we hope would be helpful in the upcoming exam.
Let us first understand, what exactly is meant by Machine Input. This is basically a topic of logical reasoning where a set of words, numbers or their combination is given in a particular sequence in various steps. You need to identify the pattern in which the initial input given to you is processed in various steps and then apply the same pattern to the statement in the questions and answer accordingly.
There may be numerous patterns which may be followed while processing a given input. We will now have a look at the most common patterns that you may encounter in the exams.
1. Shifting Pattern -
This is the most common pattern on which most of the questions are based. A particular number or word is shifted from its initial position to usually an extreme end. This shifting may be based on various parameters, for instance in ascending order, descending order, on the basis of vowel/consonant in words or on the basis of odd/even in case of numbers, the number of alphabets in the given word etc.
Consider the following example -
Input - 89 bind 32 goal house 61 12 joy
Step I - 12 89 bind 32 goal house 61 joy
Step II - 12 joy 89 bind 32 goal house 61
Step III - 12 joy 32 89 bind goal house 61
Step IV - 12 joy 32 house 89 bind goal 61
Step V - 12 joy 32 house 61 89 bind goal
Step VI - 12 joy 32 house 61 goal 89 bind
Now if you have a look at the above input, you can clearly make out the pattern. Numbers and words are being shifted in alternate steps, numbers in ascending order and alphabets in descending order. In step I, 12 being the smallest number is shifted to the extreme left end while the rest sequence remains same. In step II, joy (alphabet J) being the biggest in the alphabetical order is shifted first. Again in Step III the second smallest number, 32 has been shifted. This process is carried out till all the numbers and alphabets have been arranged in the pattern. Once you have identified the pattern, you can easily arrange the various steps of the input given in question.
Based on the above arrangement, process the given input and answer the number of steps that would be required to complete this arrangement-
Input - 21 victory 11 30 point 64 47 all gone 18 cap
2. Double Shifting -
This pattern is the same as the shifting pattern, the only difference being, shifting takes place at both the ends of the input. This shifting may take place simultaneously in the same step or in alternate steps, Consider the following example -
Input: more 40 great and 60 74 will
Step I: 74 more 40 great 60 will and
Step II: 74 60 more 40 will and great
Step III: 74 60 40 will and great more
Step IV: 74 60 40 and great more will
Now, if you observe the above arrangement, you can easily make out the changes at both the ends. 74 being the largest number is shifted to the extreme left end and ‘and’ being the smallest in alphabetical order is shifted to the extreme left end. The shifting at both ends here takes place in a single step.
Things to remember while solving these questions -
- Go through at least first 2-3 steps before deciding the pattern of the sequence. Do go through the last step of the input as well. This will give you some idea of the pattern in which the given output has been processed.
- Make sure that you observe both the ends of the arrangement while identifying the pattern.
- While writing down the different steps of the arrangement, try to use only the first alphabets in case of words in order to save time (Make sure that only a single word is present with the same alphabet when you use this approach). For instance -
42 demand earning 64 6 element 9 them output 81 summer 8 power 4 jungle
Instead of writing each word every time in different steps, you can simply write -
42 d ea 64 6 el 9 to 81 s 8 p 4 j
- Try to label the order/ranking of the number or the alphabet above them in the first step, so that you have a clear idea of the order in which you need to shift them.
- Apart from the common patterns, you may also face patterns based on arithmetic operations on numbers. Exercise caution while you attempt such patterns.
- Make sure that you go through the questions as well before writing down different steps of the input. Proceed till the last step only if it is required in the question.
- Calmly observe the given arrangement. You’ll be able to make out the pattern easily with practice.
Now that you have the basic idea of this topic, try to identify the pattern of the given arrangement.
Input - 52 peak 91 snow freeze 46 cold 15 high 31 73 trek
Step I - 15 52 peak snow freeze 46 cold high 31 73 trek 91
Step II - 15 31 52 peak snow freeze 46 cold high trek 73 91
Step III - 15 31 46 peak snow freeze cold high trek 52 73 91
Step IV - 15 31 46 cold peak snow freeze high trek 52 73 91
Step V - 15 31 46 cold freeze peak snow high trek 52 73 91
Step VI - 15 31 46 cold freeze high peak snow trek 52 73 91
Based on the above arrangement, answer the last step of the following sequence in the comments-
Input - 67 hot sun 19 best 83 ice 49 ace 77 cut 37
We will now discuss some high-level questions that you may come across in this topic -
This pattern is different from the pattern discussed in the above-given study notes.
Input: parenting 16 36 and raising 44 child 21 is demand 35
Step1: and parenting 16 36 44 child 21 is demand 35 raising
Step2: and 44 parenting 36 child 21 is demand 35 16 raising
Step3: and 44 child 36 21 is demand 35 parenting 16 raising
Step4: and 44 child 36 is demand 35 21 parenting 16 raising
Step5: and 44 child 36 demand 35 is 21 parenting 16 raising
Points to be analysed:
- Check the input and last step: You can see that in the last step all words are arranged in increasing order and numbers are arranged in decreasing order.
- Check the pattern which has been followed: You can see that in the first step, and & raising are arranged at left and right extreme place respectively.
- In the second step, the largest number (44) and the smallest number (16) are arranged at the left and right extreme place respectively.
- In the third step, the second-lowest ranking word(child) and second highest-ranking word are arranged at left and right respectively.
- In the fourth step, the second largest number (36) and the second smallest number (21) are arranged at left and right respectively.
- In the fifth step, all words are arranged in increasing order and numbers are arranged in decreasing order.
Example2: (Based on the same pattern)
Input: app sbi exam cleared final 25 28 76 BYJU'S Exam Prep 73 89
Step1: app exam cleared final 25 28 76 BYJU'S Exam Prep 73 89 sbi
Step2: app 89 exam cleared final 28 76 BYJU'S Exam Prep 73 25 sbi
Step3: app 89 cleared exam final 28 76 73 BYJU'S Exam Prep 25 sbi
Step4: app 89 cleared 76 exam final 73 28 BYJU'S Exam Prep 25 sbi
Step5: app 89 cleared 76 exam 73 final 28 BYJU'S Exam Prep 25 sbi
Input: watch guide help sky 18 54 26 37 away press 76 42 85 decide
Step1: away watch guide help sky 54 26 37 press 76 42 85 decide 18
Step2: away decide watch guide help sky 54 37 press 76 42 85 26 18
Step3: away decide guide watch help sky 54 press 76 42 85 37 26 18
Step4: away decide guide help watch sky 54 press 76 85 42 37 26 18
Step5: away decide guide help press watch sky 76 85 54 42 37 26 18
Step6: away decide guide help press sky watch 85 76 54 42 37 26 18
Points to be analysed:
- In the last step, words are arranged in increasing alphabetical order and numbers are arranged in decreasing order.
- In each step, two elements – one word and one number are rearranged. You can see that the word which is smallest according to dictionary is arranged in left extreme position and the largest number is arranged at the extreme right place.
- In the next step, the word which comes second in order of the dictionary is placed at the second position from the left and the second lowest number is placed in the second position from the right.
- Till the last step, the same procedure is followed.
Note: In each step, two elements are rearranged- one word and one number.
Input: tyre 71 toughen 59 tip 82 13 thanks to 68 table 46
Step1: 28 tyre 71 toughen 59 tip 13 thanks 68 table 46 to
Step2: 17 28 tyre toughen 59 13 thanks 68 table 48 to tip
Step3: 86 17 28 toughen 59 13 thanks table 46 to tip tyre
Step4: 95 86 17 28 toughen 13 thanks 46 to tip tyre table
Step5: 64 95 86 17 28 toughen 13 to tip tyre table thanks
Step6: 31 64 95 86 17 28 to tip tyre table thanks toughen
- From the last step, you can see that all words are the same but numbers are different and digits of numbers are interchanged.
- In the first step, you can see that the two words are rearranged. The highest number is moved to the extreme left and digits of it are interchanged while the word which consists of a minimum number of letters is moved to the extreme right.
- Similarly, it has been followed in all steps. All numbers are arranged to the left and words are arranged to the right
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