Digital fabrication technology or 3D printing or additive manufacturing creates physical objects from a geometrical representation by successive addition of materials, a fast-emerging technology. Nowadays, 3D Printing is widely used in the world and is increasingly used for mass customization, production of any type of open-source designs in the field of agriculture, healthcare, automotive industry, locomotive industry and aviation industries.
3D printing technology can print an object layer by layer deposition of material directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. This paper presents an overview of the types of 3D printing technologies, the application of 3D printing technology and lastly, the materials used for 3D printing technology in the manufacturing industry.
Introduction to 3 D metal Printing
3D printing technology is increasingly used for the mass customization, production of any type of open-source design in the field of agriculture, healthcare, the automotive industry, and aerospace industries. At the same time, there are several disadvantages to the adoption of 3D printing technology in the manufacturing industry. The effect of the use of 3D printing technology is will reduce the use of manufacturing labour so automatically will greatly affect the economy of countries that rely on a large number of low skill jobs.3D printing technology, users can print many different types of objects such as knives, guns and dangerous items. Therefore, the use of 3D printing should be limited to only certain people to prevent terrorists and criminals bring guns without being detected. At the same time, the people who get a hold of a blueprint will be able to
counterfeit products easily. This is because the use of 3D printing technology is simple, just sketching, and set the data in the machine-printed so 3D objects can generate.
To sum up, 3D printing technology has emerged during recent years as a flexible and powerful technique in the advanced manufacturing industry.
Types of 3D Printing
Varieties of 3D printing technologies have been developed with different functions according to ASTM -
- Binder jetting
Binder jetting is a rapid prototyping and 3D printing process in which a liquid binding agent is selectively deposited to join powder particles. The binder jetting technology uses a jet chemical binder onto the spread powder to form the layer. The application of the binder jetting is would be producing the casting patterns, raw sintered products or similar large-volume products from the sand. Binder jetting can print a variety of materials including metals, sands, polymers, hybrid and ceramics. Some materials like sand not require additional processing. Moreover, the process of binder jetting is simple, fast and cheap as powder particles are glued together. Lastly, binder jetting also has the ability to print very large products.
- Directed energy deposition
Directed energy deposition is a more complex printing process commonly used to repair or add additional material to existing components. Directed energy deposition has a high degree of control of grain structure and can produce a good quality of the object. The process of directed energy deposition is similar in principle to material extrusion, but the nozzle is not fixed to a specific axis and can move in multiple directions. Furthermore, the process can be used with ceramics, polymers but is typically used with metals and metal-based hybrids, in the form of either wire or powder.
Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Industry
Like any manufacturing process, 3D printing needs high-quality materials that meet consistent specifications to build consistent high-quality devices. To ensure this, procedures, requirements, and agreements of material controls are established between the suppliers, purchasers, and end-users of the material. 3D printing technology is capable to produce fully functional parts in a wide range of materials including ceramic, metallic, polymers and their combinations in form of hybrid, composites or functionally graded materials (FGMs).
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